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  1. The progressive fibrosing (PF) phenotype of interstitial lung disease (ILD) is characterised by worsening respiratory symptoms, lung function, and extent of fibrosis on high-resolution computed tomography. We ...

    Authors: Byoung Soo Kwon, Jooae Choe, Eun Jin Chae, Hee Sang Hwang, Yong-Gil Kim and Jin Woo Song
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:282
  2. This study examined whether BI113823, a novel selective kinin B1 receptor antagonist can reverse established pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), prevent right heart failure and death, which is critical for ...

    Authors: Dileep Reddy Rampa, Priya Murugesan, Honglu Chao, Huiying Feng, Wenxin Dai, Dongwon Lee, Anton Pekcec, Henri Doods and Dongmei Wu
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:281
  3. IL-35 subunit EBI3 is up-regulated in pulmonary fibrosis tissues. In this study, we investigated the pathological role of EBI3 in pulmonary fibrosis and dissected the underlying molecular mechanism.

    Authors: Donghong Chen, Guofeng Zheng, Qing Yang, Le Luo and Jinglian Shen
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:280
  4. In patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the relationship between short-term bronchodilator reversibility and longer-term response to bronchodilators is unclear. Here, we investigated whe...

    Authors: Claus F. Vogelmeier, Paul W. Jones, Edward M. Kerwin, Isabelle H. Boucot, François Maltais, Lee Tombs, Chris Compton, David A. Lipson and Leif H. Bjermer
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:279
  5. Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) is the most common and progressive form of the interstitial lung diseases, leading most patients to require lung transplants to survive. Despite the relatively well-defined ...

    Authors: Danforth A. Newton, Robyn G. Lottes, Rita M. Ryan, Demetri D. Spyropoulos and John E. Baatz
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:278
  6. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a progressive cystic lung disease with mortality driven primarily by respiratory failure. Patients with LAM frequently have respiratory infections, suggestive of a dysregulate...

    Authors: Julie Ng, Gustavo Pacheco-Rodriguez, Lesa Begley, Yvonne J. Huang, Sergio Poli, Mark A. Perrella, Ivan O. Rosas, Joel Moss and Souheil El-Chemaly
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:277
  7. Nocturnal desaturation is common in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and impacts disease exacerbation and prognosis. In our previous study, we developed a diagnostic algorithm to clas...

    Authors: Asuka Yoshizaki, Tatsuya Nagano, Shintaro Izumi, Teruaki Nishiuma, Kyosuke Nakata, Masatsugu Yamamoto, Yuichiro Yasuda, Daisuke Hazama, Kanoko Umezawa, Naoko Katsurada, Motoko Tachihara, Yoshihiro Nishimura and Kazuyuki Kobayashi
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:276
  8. Epidemiological data associate high levels of combustion-derived particulate matter (PM) with deleterious respiratory outcomes, but the mechanism underlying those outcomes remains elusive. It has been acknowle...

    Authors: Jeffrey N. Harding, Maureen Gross, Vivek Patel, Steven Potter and Stephania A. Cormier
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:275
  9. Dysbiosis of the gut microbiome is involved in the pathogenesis of various diseases, but the contribution of gut microbes to the progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is still poorly unde...

    Authors: Naijian Li, Zhouli Dai, Zhang Wang, Zhishan Deng, Jiahuan Zhang, Jinding Pu, Weitao Cao, Tianhui Pan, Yumin Zhou, Zhaowei Yang, Jing Li, Bing Li and Pixin Ran
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:274
  10. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a fatal lung disease with a significant unmet medical need. Development of transformational therapies for IPF is challenging in part to due to lack of robust predictive b...

    Authors: Pitchumani Sivakumar, Ron Ammar, John Ryan Thompson, Yi Luo, Denis Streltsov, Mary Porteous, Carly McCoubrey, Edward Cantu III, Michael F. Beers, Gabor Jarai and Jason D. Christie
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:273
  11. Beta-blocker therapies for cardiovascular comorbidities are often withheld in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) due to potential adverse effects on airway obstruction. We carried out a...

    Authors: Kenneth R. Chapman, Robert A. Wise, Benjamin M. Scirica, Deepak L. Bhatt, Sami Z. Daoud, Dan Lythgoe and Esther Garcia Gil
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:272
  12. In patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the maximum level of diaphragm excursion (DEmax) is correlated with dynamic lung hyperinflation and exercise tolerance. This study aimed to elucidate...

    Authors: Masashi Shiraishi, Yuji Higashimoto, Ryuji Sugiya, Hiroki Mizusawa, Yu Takeda, Shuhei Fujita, Osamu Nishiyama, Shintarou Kudo, Tamotsu Kimura, Yasutaka Chiba, Kanji Fukuda, Yuji Tohda and Hisako Matsumoto
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:271
  13. Two antifibrotic drugs, pirfenidone and nintedanib, are licensed for the treatment of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). However, there is neither evidence from prospective data nor a guideline...

    Authors: Pavo Marijic, Larissa Schwarzkopf, Lars Schwettmann, Thomas Ruhnke, Franziska Trudzinski and Michael Kreuter
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:268
  14. The non-cancerous functions of Akt in the airway are understudied. In some tissues, Akt phosphorylates and activates endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) to produce nitric oxide (NO) that has anti-inflamma...

    Authors: Indiwari Gopallawa, Li Eon Kuek, Nithin D. Adappa, James N. Palmer and Robert J. Lee
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:267
  15. Over 300 million people in the world live with asthma, resulting in 500,000 annual global deaths with future increases expected. It is estimated that around 50–80% of asthma exacerbations are due to viral infe...

    Authors: Yechan Kim, Vincent Hou, Ryan D. Huff, Jennifer A. Aguiar, Spencer Revill, Nicholas Tiessen, Quynh Cao, Matthew S. Miller, Mark D. Inman, Kjetil Ask, Andrew C. Doxey and Jeremy A. Hirota
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:266
  16. αv integrins, key regulators of transforming growth factor-β activation and fibrogenesis in in vivo models of pulmonary fibrosis, are expressed on abnormal epithelial cells (αvβ6) and fibroblasts (αvβ1) in fibrot...

    Authors: Martin L. Decaris, Johanna R. Schaub, Chun Chen, Jacob Cha, Gail G. Lee, Megi Rexhepaj, Steve S. Ho, Vikram Rao, Megan M. Marlow, Prerna Kotak, Erine H. Budi, Lisa Hooi, Jianfeng Wu, Marina Fridlib, Shamra P. Martin, Shaoyi Huang…
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:265
  17. Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a common and potentially life-threatening complication for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. However, there is a lack of clear prognostic factors in rheumatoid arthritis-as...

    Authors: Meihua Qiu, Jing Jiang, Xueyuan Nian, Yutie Wang, Pengfei Yu, Jie Song and Shenchun Zou
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:264
  18. Inhalation of fungal spores is a strong risk factor for severe asthma and experimentally leads to development of airway mycosis and asthma-like disease in mice. However, in addition to fungal spores, humans ar...

    Authors: Yuying Zeng, Yun Zhang, Xinyan Huang, Lizhen Song, Katherine Polsky, Yifan Wu, Farrah Kheradmand, Yubiao Guo, Linda K. Green, David B. Corry and John M. Knight
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:263
  19. Prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) signaling via prostaglandin D2 receptor 2 (DP2) contributes to atopic and non-atopic asthma. Inhibiting DP2 has shown therapeutic benefit in certain subsets of asthma patients, improving e...

    Authors: Saskia Carstensen, Christina Gress, Veit J. Erpenbeck, Shamsah D. Kazani, Jens M. Hohlfeld, David A. Sandham and Meike Müller
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:262
  20. Triple therapy with inhaled corticosteroids/long-acting muscarinic antagonists/long-acting β2-agonists (ICS/LAMA/LABA) is recommended for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with continued ...

    Authors: Omar Usmani, Nicolas Roche, Ezanul Wahab, Samuel Israel, Martin Jenkins, Roopa Trivedi, Paul Dorinsky and Magnus Aurivillius
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:261
  21. The “can do, do do” concept aims at identifying subgroups among persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Following a two-dimensional categorization, individuals are binarily classified with r...

    Authors: J. Carl, K. Schultz, T. Janssens, A. von Leupoldt, K. Pfeifer and W. Geidl
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:260
  22. Health-related quality of life (HRQL) is impaired in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). HRQL is often measured using the St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) despite the development of...

    Authors: Thomas Skovhus Prior, Nils Hoyer, Saher Burhan Shaker, Jesper Rømhild Davidsen, Ole Hilberg, Haridarshan Patel and Elisabeth Bendstrup
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:259
  23. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a key contributing factor to poor survival in lung transplantation recipients. Mitochondrial dysfunction is recognized as a critical mediator in the pathogenesis of diabetic lung isch...

    Authors: Tao Jiang, Tianhua Liu, Xijin Deng, Wengang Ding, Ziyong Yue, Wanchao Yang, Xiangqi Lv and Wenzhi Li
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:258
  24. Hospitalizations are common among patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). We investigated the impact of hospitalizations on outcomes in patients with IPF.

    Authors: Hyun J. Kim, Laurie D. Snyder, Ayodeji Adegunsoye, Megan L. Neely, Shaun Bender, Eric S. White, Craig S. Conoscenti and Mary E. Strek
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:257
  25. For years, paediatric critical care practitioners used the adult American European Consensus Conference (AECC) and revised Berlin Definition (BD) for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) to study the epi...

    Authors: Michelle Rudolph, Jefta van Dijk, Pauline de Jager, Sandra K. Dijkstra, Johannes G. M. Burgerhof, Robert G. T. Blokpoel and Martin C. J. Kneyber
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:256
  26. There is relatively little published on the effects of COVID-19 on respiratory physiology, particularly breathing patterns. We sought to determine if there were lasting detrimental effect following hospital di...

    Authors: James A. Stockley, Eyas A. Alhuthail, Andrew M. Coney, Dhruv Parekh, Tarekegn Geberhiwot, Nandan Gautum, Shyam C. Madathil and Brendan G. Cooper
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:255
  27. Iron and steel industry workers are exposed to high levels of inhalable dust particles that contain various elements, including metals, and cause occupational lung diseases. We aim to assess the relationship b...

    Authors: Nan Kong, Guoshun Chen, Haitao Wang, Jianyu Li, Shuzhen Yin, Xue Cao, Tao Wang, Xin Li, Yanan Li, Huanling Zhang, Shanfa Yu, Jinglong Tang, Akshay Sood, Yuxin Zheng and Shuguang Leng
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:254
  28. During flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FOB) the arterial partial pressure of oxygen can drop, increasing the risk for respiratory failure. To avoid desaturation episodes during the procedure several oxygenat...

    Authors: Corrado Pelaia, Andrea Bruni, Eugenio Garofalo, Serena Rovida, Eugenio Arrighi, Gianmaria Cammarota, Paolo Navalesi, Girolamo Pelaia and Federico Longhini
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:253
  29. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness is a typical, but non-specific feature of cough variant asthma (CVA). This study aimed to determine whether bronchial hyperresponsiveness may be considered as a predictor of CVA i...

    Authors: Aleksandra Rybka-Fraczek, Marta Dabrowska, Elzbieta M. Grabczak, Katarzyna Bialek-Gosk, Karolina Klimowicz, Olga Truba and Rafal Krenke
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:252
  30. Thirty countries with the highest tuberculosis (TB) burden bear 87% of the world’s TB cases. Delayed diagnosis and treatment are detrimental to TB prognosis and sustain TB transmission in the community, making...

    Authors: Alvin Kuo Jing Teo, Shweta R. Singh, Kiesha Prem, Li Yang Hsu and Siyan Yi
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:251
  31. Mechanical ventilation can induce or aggravate lung injury, which is termed ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). Piezo1 is a key element of the mechanotransduction process and can transduce mechanical signal...

    Authors: Yang Zhang, Lulu Jiang, Tianfeng Huang, Dahao Lu, Yue Song, Lihui Wang and Ju Gao
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:250
  32. Elastin degradation has been established as one of the driving factors of emphysema. Elastin-derived peptides (EDPs) are shown to act as a chemoattractant for monocytes. Effectively shielding elastin from elas...

    Authors: Vaideesh Parasaram, Xiaoying Wang, Pantrika Krisanarungson and Narendra Vyavahare
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:249
  33. Chemoresistance limits the therapeutic effect of cisplatin (DDP) on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Circular RNAs (circRNAs) function as important regulators in chemoresistance. This study aimed to explore...

    Authors: Nan Feng, Zhi Guo, Xiaokang Wu, Ying Tian, Yue Li, Yan Geng and Yan Yu
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:248
  34. Social media is an increasingly popular source of health information, and the rarity and complexity of interstitial lung disease (ILD) may particularly draw patients with ILD to social media for information an...

    Authors: Japnam S. Grewal, Leticia Kawano-Dourado and Christopher J. Ryerson
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:247
  35. There is a need for timely, accurate diagnosis, and personalised management in lung diseases. Exhaled breath reflects inflammatory and metabolic processes in the human body, especially in the lungs. The analys...

    Authors: I. G. van der Sar, N. Wijbenga, G. Nakshbandi, J. G. J. V. Aerts, O. C. Manintveld, M. S. Wijsenbeek, M. E. Hellemons and C. C. Moor
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:246
  36. We performed a multicenter, randomized open-label trial in patients with moderate to severe Covid-19 treated with a range of possible treatment regimens. Methods: Patients were randomly assigned to one of thre...

    Authors: Mostafa Ghanei, Masoud Solaymani-Dodaran, Ali Qazvini, Amir Hosein Ghazale, Seyed Amin Setarehdan, Seyed Hassan Saadat, Hassan Ghobadi, Saeed Hoseininia, Maryam Elahikhah, Ali Hossein Samadi, Yousef Imani, Ensieh Vahedi, Farhang Babamahmoodi, Fatemeh Tajik Rostami, Mohammad Hossein Azimzadeh Ardebili, Akram Ansarifar…
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:245
  37. Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is considered one of the most common genetic diseases and is characterised by the misfolding and polymerisation of the alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) protein within hepatocytes...

    Authors: Alexa Núñez, Irene Belmonte, Elena Miranda, Miriam Barrecheguren, Georgina Farago, Eduardo Loeb, Mònica Pons, Francisco Rodríguez-Frías, Pablo Gabriel-Medina, Esther Rodríguez, Joan Genescà, Marc Miravitlles and Cristina Esquinas
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:244

    The Correction to this article has been published in Respiratory Research 2021 22:283

  38. The effect of additional antimicrobial agents on the clinical outcomes of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is unclear.

    Authors: Ching-Yi Chen, Chao-Hsien Chen, Cheng-Yi Wang, Chih-Cheng Lai, Chien-Ming Chao and Yu-Feng Wei
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:243
  39. Lung emphysema is an important phenotype of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and CT scanning is strongly recommended to establish the diagnosis. This study aimed to identify criteria by which phys...

    Authors: Christina Kellerer, Rudolf A. Jörres, Antonius Schneider, Peter Alter, Hans-Ulrich Kauczor, Bertram Jobst, Jürgen Biederer, Robert Bals, Henrik Watz, Jürgen Behr, Diego Kauffmann-Guerrero, Johanna Lutter, Alexander Hapfelmeier, Helgo Magnussen, Franziska C. Trudzinski, Tobias Welte…
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:242
  40. Pulmonary hypertension (PH) complicating idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is associated to worse outcome. There is a great need for a non-invasive diagnostic modality to detect and evaluate the severity of ...

    Authors: François Harel, Quang T. Nguyen, Mohamed J. Nsaibia, Vincent Finnerty, Arielle Morgan, Martin Sirois, Louis Villeneuve, Angelino Calderone, Alexandre Bergeron, Emmanuelle Brochiero, Jean-Claude Tardif, YanFen Shi and Jocelyn Dupuis
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:240
  41. It has been found that up-regulation of histone deacetylases 1 (HDAC1) is involved in the development of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). However, it is still unclear whether inhibition of HDAC1 suppress...

    Authors: Fangwei Li, Dan Wang, Hong Wang, Lijun Chen, Xilu Sun and Yixin Wan
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:239
  42. Childhood asthma is a common respiratory disease characterized by airway inflammation. Tumor necrosis factor-α-induced protein 8-like 2 (TIPE2) has been found to be involved in the progression of asthma. This ...

    Authors: Huiyuan Wang, Bo Zhong, Yan Geng, Juanjuan Hao, Qiaoyan Jin, Yang Zhang, Lijuan Dong, Dan Gao, Jing Li and Wei Hou
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:238
  43. Follow-up studies of COVID-19 patients have found lung function impairment up to six months after initial infection, but small airway function has not previously been studied. Patients (n = 20) hospitalised fo...

    Authors: Anna Lindahl, Jere Reijula, Leo Pekka Malmberg, Miia Aro, Tuula Vasankari and Mika Juhani Mäkelä
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:237
  44. Rapid response systems (RRSs) improve patients’ safety, but the role of dedicated doctors within these systems remains controversial. We aimed to evaluate patient survival rates and differences in types of int...

    Authors: Hyung-Jun Kim, Kyeongman Jeon, Byung Ju Kang, Jong-Joon Ahn, Sang-Bum Hong, Dong-Hyun Lee, Jae Young Moon, Jung Soo Kim, Jisoo Park, Jae Hwa Cho, Sang-Min Lee and Yeon Joo Lee
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:236
  45. Cigarette smoke triggers many cellular and signaling responses in the lung and the resulting inflammation plays a central role in smoke-related lung diseases, such as COPD. We explored the effects of smoking o...

    Authors: Spela Kokelj, Jörgen Östling, Benjamin Georgi, Karin Fromell, Kristina Nilsson Ekdahl, Henric K. Olsson and Anna-Carin Olin
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:234
  46. Ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) is a common complication in the treatment of respiratory diseases with high morbidity and mortality. ETS-domain containing protein (Elk1) and Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP...

    Authors: Zhao Tao, Yan Jie, Zhang Mingru, Gu Changping, Yang Fan, Wu Haifeng and Wang Yuelan
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:233

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