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  1. Smoking-related chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with dysregulated production of mucus. Mucins (MUC) are important both for mucus secretion and epithelial defense. We have examined th...

    Authors: Heta Merikallio, Riitta Kaarteenaho, Sara Lindén, Médea Padra, Reza Karimi, Chuan-Xing Li, Elisa Lappi-Blanco, Åsa M. Wheelock and Magnus C. Sköld

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:239

    Content type: Research

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  2. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterised by progressive airflow limitation and chronic inflammation. Predicting exacerbations of COPD, which contribute to disease progression, is important...

    Authors: Dave Singh, Jadwiga A. Wedzicha, Salman Siddiqui, Alberto de la Hoz, Wenqiong Xue, Helgo Magnussen, Marc Miravitlles, James D. Chalmers and Peter M. A. Calverley

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:240

    Content type: Research

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  3. Previously, it has been shown that obesity is a risk factor for recovery, regeneration, and tissue repair after blunt trauma and can affect the rate of muscle recovery and collagen deposition after trauma. To ...

    Authors: Pengfei Xu, Fabian Gärtner, Adrian Gihring, Congxing Liu, Timo Burster, Martin Wabitsch, Uwe Knippschild and Stephan Paschke

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:238

    Content type: Research

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  4. Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) regulates multiple aspects of innate immunity and tissue inflammation. Recently, it has been reported that PTX3 deficiency enhances interleukin (IL)-17A–dominant pulmonary inflammation in an...

    Authors: Pengfei Gao, Kun Tang, Yanjiao Lu, Zhenli Huang, Shanshan Wang, Meijia Wang, Jianmiao Wang, Jianping Zhao and Jungang Xie

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:237

    Content type: Research

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  5. Spontaneous pneumothorax is an uncommon complication of COVID-19 viral pneumonia. The exact incidence and risk factors are still unknown. Herein we review the incidence and outcomes of pneumothorax in over 300...

    Authors: Massa Zantah, Eduardo Dominguez Castillo, Ryan Townsend, Fusun Dikengil and Gerard J. Criner

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:236

    Content type: Research

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  6. Heat shock protein 47 (HSP47), a collagen-binding protein, has a specific role in the intracellular processing of procollagen production. HSP47 expression is associated with cancer growth and metastasis in sev...

    Authors: Takuto Miyamura, Noriho Sakamoto, Kaori Ishida, Tomoyuki Kakugawa, Hirokazu Taniguchi, Yoshiko Akiyama, Daisuke Okuno, Atsuko Hara, Takashi Kido, Hiroshi Ishimoto, Takuro Miyazaki, Keitaro Matsumoto, Tomoshi Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki Yamaguchi, Taiga Miyazaki, Yasushi Obase…

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:234

    Content type: Research

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  7. The airway epithelium (AE) forms the first line of defence against harmful particles and pathogens. Barrier failure of the airway epithelium contributes to exacerbations of a range of lung diseases that are co...

    Authors: Jon Petur Joelsson, Jennifer A. Kricker, Ari J. Arason, Snaevar Sigurdsson, Bryndis Valdimarsdottir, Fridrik Runar Gardarsson, Clive P. Page, Fredrik Lehmann, Thorarinn Gudjonsson and Saevar Ingthorsson

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:233

    Content type: Research

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  8. Ferroptosis is a new type of nonapoptotic cell death model that was closely related to reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. Seawater drowning-induced acute lung injury (ALI) which is caused by severe ox...

    Authors: Yu-bao Qiu, Bin-bin Wan, Gang Liu, Ya-xian Wu, Dan Chen, Mu-dan Lu, Jun-liang Chen, Ren-qiang Yu, Dao-zhen Chen and Qing-feng Pang

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:232

    Content type: Research

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  9. Navafenterol (AZD8871) is a novel, long-acting, dual-pharmacology (muscarinic receptor antagonist and β2−adrenoceptor agonist) molecule in development for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma.

    Authors: Victor Balaguer, Muna Albayaty, Eulalia Jimenez, Ulrika Wählby-Hamrén, Carol Astbury, Beatriz Seoane, Marie-Pierre Malice, Alejhandra Lei, Ajay Aggarwal and Ioannis Psallidas

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21(Suppl 1):212

    Content type: Research

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    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 21 Supplement 1

  10. Navafenterol (AZD8871) is an inhaled long-acting dual-pharmacology muscarinic antagonist/β2-adrenoceptor agonist (MABA) in development for the treatment of obstructive airways diseases. The safety, tolerability, ...

    Authors: Eulalia Jimenez, Carol Astbury, Muna Albayaty, Ulrika Wählby-Hamrén, Beatriz Seoane, Cristina Villarroel, Helena Pujol, Maria Jesus Bermejo, Ajay Aggarwal and Ioannis Psallidas

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21(Suppl 1):211

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 21 Supplement 1

  11. Navafenterol (AZD8871) is a dual-pharmacology muscarinic antagonist β2−agonist (MABA) molecule in development for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The pharmacodynamics, safety and to...

    Authors: Dave Singh, Victor Balaguer, Carol Astbury, Ulrika Wählby-Hamrén, Eulalia Jimenez, Beatriz Seoane, Cristina Villarroel, Alejhandra Lei, Ajay Aggarwal and Ioannis Psallidas

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21(Suppl 1):102

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 21 Supplement 1

  12. Although increasing data supports the use of transbronchial lung cryobiopsies (TBLCs) for the diagnosis of diffuse parenchymal lung diseases (DPLDs), its role as an alternative to surgical lung biopsy (SLB) is...

    Authors: Benjamin Bondue, Dimitri Leduc, Antoine Froidure, Thierry Pieters, Olivier Taton, Vincent Heinen, Patrick Alexander, Delphine Hoton, Florence Dome and Myriam Remmelink

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:231

    Content type: Research

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  13. Early life exposure in the uterus had a long-term effect on children’s health. As the prevalence of allergies is increasing with a remarkable sex difference, very few studies have traced back to their early or...

    Authors: Yiting Chen, Jiajun Lyu, Yuanqing Xia, Jianzhen Zhu, Shilu Tong, Yong Ying, Jiajie Qu and Shenghui Li

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:230

    Content type: Research

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  14. Emphysema is a crucial pathological characteristic of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Oxidative stress, apoptosis and epigenetic mechanisms contribute to the pathogenesis of emphysema. However, a...

    Authors: Huihui Zeng, Tiao Li, Xue He, Shan Cai, Hong Luo, Ping Chen and Yan Chen

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:229

    Content type: Research

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  15. Emphysema in asymptomatic heavy smokers can be detected during CT-scan screening for lung cancer. Metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been found to play a role in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary d...

    Authors: Jun-Chieh J. Tsay, Yingjie Hu, Judith D. Goldberg, Bin Wang, Soumya Vijayalekshmy, Ting-An Yie, Katrina Bantis, Daniel H. Sterman and William N. Rom

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:228

    Content type: Research

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  16. AKT2 is highly expressed in many human cancers, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Accumulating evidence has also revealed that AKT2 can promote NSCLC cell proliferation and metastasis. However, the...

    Authors: Ting Liu, Jianjie Zhu, Wenwen Du, Weiwei Ning, Yang Zhang, Yuanyuan Zeng, Zeyi Liu and Jian-An Huang

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:227

    Content type: Research

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  17. Bronchial asthma (BA) has different phenotypes, and it requires a clinically effective subtype classification system. The impulse oscillometry system (IOS) is an emerging technique device used in respiratory f...

    Authors: Hiroyuki Sugawara, Atsushi Saito, Saori Yokoyama, Kazunori Tsunematsu, Hirofumi Chiba and Hiroki Takahashi

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:226

    Content type: Research

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  18. It is unclear whether sarcoidosis, a multisystem inflammatory disease, is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. We aimed to assess the risk of adverse maternal and infant outcomes in sarcoidosis pregnanc...

    Authors: Laura Köcher, Marios Rossides, Katarina Remaeus, Johan Grunewald, Anders Eklund, Susanna Kullberg and Elizabeth V. Arkema

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:225

    Content type: Research

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  19. Within two decades, there have emerged three highly pathogenic and deadly human coronaviruses, namely SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. The economic burden and health threats caused by these coronaviruses are...

    Authors: Zhixing Zhu, Xihua Lian, Xiaoshan Su, Weijing Wu, Giuseppe A. Marraro and Yiming Zeng

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:224

    Content type: Review

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  20. The potential role of adjunctive anti-inflammatory therapy to enhance tuberculosis (TB) treatment has recently received increasing interest. There is, therefore, a need to broadly examine current host-directed...

    Authors: Frank Ekow Atta Hayford, Robin Claire Dolman, Renee Blaauw, Arista Nienaber, Cornelius Mattheus Smuts, Linda Malan and Cristian Ricci

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:223

    Content type: Review

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  21. Cystic fibrosis (CF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are associated with acute and chronic bacterial infections of the lung. Excessive differentiation of basal cells to mucus-producing goblet ...

    Authors: Richard F. Sprott, Felix Ritzmann, Frank Langer, Yiwen Yao, Christian Herr, Yvonne Kohl, Thomas Tschernig, Robert Bals and Christoph Beisswenger

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:222

    Content type: Letter to the Editor

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  22. CXCR4, a transmembrane-receptor located on epithelial cells that is activated by CXCL12, may have a role in IPF via migration of CXCR4+ fibrocytes to the lung. However, its expression has not been fully character...

    Authors: Jade Jaffar, Kate Griffiths, Sara Oveissi, Mubing Duan, Michael Foley, Ian Glaspole, Karen Symons, Louise Organ and Glen Westall

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:221

    Content type: Research

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  23. Reflux of gastric content has been associated with recurrent exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We aimed to assess the prevalence of laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) in COPD and if LP...

    Authors: Julia Sanchez, Desiree M. Schumann, Meropi Karakioulaki, Eleni Papakonstantinou, Frank Rassouli, Matthias Frasnelli, Martin Brutsche, Michael Tamm and Daiana Stolz

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:220

    Content type: Letter to the Editor

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  24. Recognition of disorder phenotypes may help to estimate prognosis and to guide the clinical management. Current cough management guidelines classify patients according to the duration of the cough episode. How...

    Authors: Heikki O. Koskela, Tuomas A. Selander and Anne M. Lätti

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:219

    Content type: Research

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  25. Contemporarily authoritative algorithms for the prediction of acute pulmonary embolism (PE) comprise the Standard algorithm, the Age-adjusted algorithm, the YEARS algorithm, the PERC algorithm, and the PEGeD a...

    Authors: Wei Xiong, He Du, Mei Xu, Wei Ding, Jinyuan Sun, Fengfeng Han and Xuejun Guo

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:218

    Content type: Research

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  26. Airway clearance techniques (ACTs) are an important aspect of the treatment of children with chronic obstructive lung diseases. Unfortunately, a sound evidence base is lacking and airway clearance strategies a...

    Authors: Eline Lauwers, Kris Ides, Kim Van Hoorenbeeck and Stijn Verhulst

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:217

    Content type: Review

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  27. The development of effective nutritional supports for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) is still challenging. This study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of daily consumption...

    Authors: Afsane Ahmadi, Mohammad Hassan Eftekhari, Zohreh Mazloom, Masoom Masoompour, Mohammad Fararooei, Mohammad Hadi Eskandari, Samrad Mehrabi, Alireza Bedeltavana, Mandana Famouri, Morteza Zare, Nasrin Nasimi and Zahra Sohrabi

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:216

    Content type: Research

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  28. Endothelial injury is one of the predominant pathophysiological characteristics of sepsis and is the major cause of sepsis-induced multiple organ failure. Endothelial pyroptosis is a fatal mechanism of endothe...

    Authors: Fei Peng, Wei Chang, Qin Sun, Xinyi Xu, Jianfeng Xie, Haibo Qiu and Yi Yang

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:215

    Content type: Research

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  29. Severe asthma (SA) may require frequent courses or chronic use of oral corticosteroids (OCS), inducing many known side effects and complications. Therefore, it is important to identify risk factors of chronic ...

    Authors: S. Graff, S. Vanwynsberghe, G. Brusselle, S. Hanon, C. Sohy, L. J. Dupont, R. Peche, A. Michils, C. Pilette, G. Joos, R. E. Louis and F. N. Schleich

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:214

    Content type: Research

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  30. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: A. M. Fratta Pasini, C. Stranieri, M. Ferrari, U. Garbin, L. Cazzoletti, C. Mozzini, F. Spelta, D. Peserico and L. Cominacini

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:213

    Content type: Correction

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    The original article was published in Respiratory Research 2020 21:37

  31. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) can have various causes. The study objective was to investigate whether different pathophysiologic models of ARDS would show different respiratory, cardiovascular and...

    Authors: Monique Engel, Relana M. E. Nowacki, Elly M. Jonker, Daan Ophelders, Maria Nikiforou, Nico Kloosterboer, Luc J. I. Zimmermann, Dick A. van Waardenburg and Boris W. Kramer

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:209

    Content type: Research

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  32. The hedgehog (HH) pathway has been associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in genome-wide association studies and recent studies suggest that HH signalling could be altered in COPD. We the...

    Authors: Julien Ancel, Randa Belgacemi, Jeanne-Marie Perotin, Zania Diabasana, Sandra Dury, Maxime Dewolf, Arnaud Bonnomet, Nathalie Lalun, Philippe Birembaut, Myriam Polette, Gaëtan Deslée and Valérian Dormoy

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:207

    Content type: Research

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  33. The importance of lipid mediators in allergic diseases has been long recognized, whereas little is known about their role in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA). We investigated whether lipid mediat...

    Authors: Lu Li, Jianlin Wu, Xiqing Bian, Ge Wu, Peiyan Zheng, Mingshan Xue and Baoqing Sun

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:205

    Content type: Research

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  34. In chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) impaired pulmonary hemodynamics lead to right heart failure. Natriuretic peptides reflect hemodynamic disease severity. Pregnancy-associated plasma prot...

    Authors: Steffen D. Kriechbaum, Felix Rudolph, Christoph B. Wiedenroth, Lisa Mielzarek, Moritz Haas, Stefan Guth, Christian W. Hamm, Eckhard Mayer, Christoph Liebetrau and Till Keller

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:204

    Content type: Letter to the Editor

    Published on:

  35. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common comorbidity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and has been associated with increased risk of acute exacerbations, hospitalization, emergency roo...

    Authors: Arianne K. Baldomero, Chris H. Wendt, Ashley Petersen, Nathaniel T. Gaeckle, MeiLan K. Han and Ken M. Kunisaki

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:203

    Content type: Research

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  36. Lung epithelial damage, activation of the wound healing cascade, and remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) play a major role in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The pro-peptide of type VI c...

    Authors: Sarah R. Rønnow, Lasse L. Langholm, Morten A. Karsdal, Tina Manon-Jensen, Ruth Tal-Singer, Bruce E. Miller, Jørgen Vestbo, Diana J. Leeming and Jannie M. B. Sand

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:202

    Content type: Letter to the Editor

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  37. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a new respiratory and systemic disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. The purpose of the present study was to investiga...

    Authors: Li-Da Chen, Zhen-Yu Zhang, Xiao-Jie Wei, Yu-Qing Cai, Weng-Zhen Yao, Ming-Hui Wang, Qiu-Fen Huang and Xiao-Bin Zhang

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:201

    Content type: Research

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  38. The human small airway epithelium (SAE) plays a central role in the early events in the pathogenesis of most inherited and acquired lung disorders. Little is known about the molecular phenotypes of the specifi...

    Authors: Wu-lin Zuo, Mahboubeh R. Rostami, Shushila A. Shenoy, Michelle G. LeBlanc, Jacqueline Salit, Yael Strulovici-Barel, Sarah L. O’Beirne, Robert J. Kaner, Philip L. Leopold, Jason G. Mezey, Juergen Schymeinsky, Karsten Quast, Sudha Visvanathan, Jay S. Fine, Matthew J. Thomas and Ronald G. Crystal

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:200

    Content type: Research

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  39. The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a global crisis, challenging healthcare systems worldwide. Many patients present with a remarkable disconnect in rest between profound hypoxemia yet wi...

    Authors: Sebastiaan Dhont, Eric Derom, Eva Van Braeckel, Pieter Depuydt and Bart N. Lambrecht

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:198

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  40. Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a multi-organ autoimmune disease with complex interactions between immune-mediated inflammatory processes and vascular pathology leading to small vessel obliteration, promoting unco...

    Authors: Anna-Maria Hoffmann-Vold, Yannick Allanore, Elisabeth Bendstrup, Cosimo Bruni, Oliver Distler, Toby M. Maher, Marlies Wijsenbeek and Michael Kreuter

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:197

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  41. Two antifibrotic drugs, nintedanib and pirfenidone, are available for treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Although efficacy and adverse events have been well studied, little is known about patien...

    Authors: C. C. Moor, R. L. M. Mostard, J. C. Grutters, P. Bresser, J. G. J. V. Aerts, C. D. Dirksen, M. L. Kimman and M. S. Wijsenbeek

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:196

    Content type: Research

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  42. Patients suffering from fibrotic interstitial lung diseases (fILD) have a poor prognosis and a high symptom burden. Palliative treatment includes relief of symptoms such as breathlessness. There is no evidence...

    Authors: Sissel Kronborg-White, Charlotte Uggerhøj Andersen, Charlotte Kohberg, Ole Hilberg and Elisabeth Bendstrup

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:195

    Content type: Research

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  43. Oxygen saturation to fraction of inspired oxygen ratio (SpO2/FiO2) has been described as potential predictor of poor outcome for COVID-19, without considering its time-varying behavior though.

    Authors: Xiaofan Lu, Liyun Jiang, Taige Chen, Yang Wang, Bing Zhang, Yizhou Hong, Jun Wang and Fangrong Yan

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:194

    Content type: Letter to the Editor

    Published on:

  44. RSV can lead to persistent airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), and is intimately associated with childhood recurrent wheezing and asthma, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Lip...

    Authors: Shenglin Chen, Jun Xie, Keting Zhao, Luo Ren, Yu Deng, Xiaohong Xie, Shiyi Chen, Hongmei Xu, Xiaoru Long and Enmei Liu

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:193

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  45. Severity of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) depends on microbial pathogenicity, load and virulence, and immune responses. The Infectious Disease Society of America and the American Thoracic Society (IDSA/AT...

    Authors: Qi Guo, Wei-dong Song, Hai-yan Li, Ming Li, Xiao-ke Chen, Hui Liu, Hong-lin Peng, Hai-qiong Yu, Nian Liu, Zhong-dong Lü, Li-hua Liang, Qing-zhou Zhao and Mei Jiang

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:192

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

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