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  1. Beta-blocker therapies for cardiovascular comorbidities are often withheld in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) due to potential adverse effects on airway obstruction. We carried out a...

    Authors: Kenneth R. Chapman, Robert A. Wise, Benjamin M. Scirica, Deepak L. Bhatt, Sami Z. Daoud, Dan Lythgoe and Esther Garcia Gil

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:272

    Content type: Research

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  2. In patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the maximum level of diaphragm excursion (DEmax) is correlated with dynamic lung hyperinflation and exercise tolerance. This study aimed to elucidate...

    Authors: Masashi Shiraishi, Yuji Higashimoto, Ryuji Sugiya, Hiroki Mizusawa, Yu Takeda, Shuhei Fujita, Osamu Nishiyama, Shintarou Kudo, Tamotsu Kimura, Yasutaka Chiba, Kanji Fukuda, Yuji Tohda and Hisako Matsumoto

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:271

    Content type: Research

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  3. Two antifibrotic drugs, pirfenidone and nintedanib, are licensed for the treatment of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). However, there is neither evidence from prospective data nor a guideline...

    Authors: Pavo Marijic, Larissa Schwarzkopf, Lars Schwettmann, Thomas Ruhnke, Franziska Trudzinski and Michael Kreuter

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:268

    Content type: Research

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  4. The non-cancerous functions of Akt in the airway are understudied. In some tissues, Akt phosphorylates and activates endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) to produce nitric oxide (NO) that has anti-inflamma...

    Authors: Indiwari Gopallawa, Li Eon Kuek, Nithin D. Adappa, James N. Palmer and Robert J. Lee

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:267

    Content type: Research

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  5. Over 300 million people in the world live with asthma, resulting in 500,000 annual global deaths with future increases expected. It is estimated that around 50–80% of asthma exacerbations are due to viral infe...

    Authors: Yechan Kim, Vincent Hou, Ryan D. Huff, Jennifer A. Aguiar, Spencer Revill, Nicholas Tiessen, Quynh Cao, Matthew S. Miller, Mark D. Inman, Kjetil Ask, Andrew C. Doxey and Jeremy A. Hirota

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:266

    Content type: Research

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  6. αv integrins, key regulators of transforming growth factor-β activation and fibrogenesis in in vivo models of pulmonary fibrosis, are expressed on abnormal epithelial cells (αvβ6) and fibroblasts (αvβ1) in fibrot...

    Authors: Martin L. Decaris, Johanna R. Schaub, Chun Chen, Jacob Cha, Gail G. Lee, Megi Rexhepaj, Steve S. Ho, Vikram Rao, Megan M. Marlow, Prerna Kotak, Erine H. Budi, Lisa Hooi, Jianfeng Wu, Marina Fridlib, Shamra P. Martin, Shaoyi Huang…

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:265

    Content type: Research

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  7. Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a common and potentially life-threatening complication for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. However, there is a lack of clear prognostic factors in rheumatoid arthritis-as...

    Authors: Meihua Qiu, Jing Jiang, Xueyuan Nian, Yutie Wang, Pengfei Yu, Jie Song and Shenchun Zou

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:264

    Content type: Research

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  8. Inhalation of fungal spores is a strong risk factor for severe asthma and experimentally leads to development of airway mycosis and asthma-like disease in mice. However, in addition to fungal spores, humans ar...

    Authors: Yuying Zeng, Yun Zhang, Xinyan Huang, Lizhen Song, Katherine Polsky, Yifan Wu, Farrah Kheradmand, Yubiao Guo, Linda K. Green, David B. Corry and John M. Knight

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:263

    Content type: Research

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  9. Prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) signaling via prostaglandin D2 receptor 2 (DP2) contributes to atopic and non-atopic asthma. Inhibiting DP2 has shown therapeutic benefit in certain subsets of asthma patients, improving e...

    Authors: Saskia Carstensen, Christina Gress, Veit J. Erpenbeck, Shamsah D. Kazani, Jens M. Hohlfeld, David A. Sandham and Meike Müller

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:262

    Content type: Research

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  10. Triple therapy with inhaled corticosteroids/long-acting muscarinic antagonists/long-acting β2-agonists (ICS/LAMA/LABA) is recommended for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with continued ...

    Authors: Omar Usmani, Nicolas Roche, Ezanul Wahab, Samuel Israel, Martin Jenkins, Roopa Trivedi, Paul Dorinsky and Magnus Aurivillius

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:261

    Content type: Research

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  11. The “can do, do do” concept aims at identifying subgroups among persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Following a two-dimensional categorization, individuals are binarily classified with r...

    Authors: J. Carl, K. Schultz, T. Janssens, A. von Leupoldt, K. Pfeifer and W. Geidl

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:260

    Content type: Research

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  12. Health-related quality of life (HRQL) is impaired in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). HRQL is often measured using the St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) despite the development of...

    Authors: Thomas Skovhus Prior, Nils Hoyer, Saher Burhan Shaker, Jesper Rømhild Davidsen, Ole Hilberg, Haridarshan Patel and Elisabeth Bendstrup

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:259

    Content type: Research

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  13. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a key contributing factor to poor survival in lung transplantation recipients. Mitochondrial dysfunction is recognized as a critical mediator in the pathogenesis of diabetic lung isch...

    Authors: Tao Jiang, Tianhua Liu, Xijin Deng, Wengang Ding, Ziyong Yue, Wanchao Yang, Xiangqi Lv and Wenzhi Li

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:258

    Content type: Research

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  14. Hospitalizations are common among patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). We investigated the impact of hospitalizations on outcomes in patients with IPF.

    Authors: Hyun J. Kim, Laurie D. Snyder, Ayodeji Adegunsoye, Megan L. Neely, Shaun Bender, Eric S. White, Craig S. Conoscenti and Mary E. Strek

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:257

    Content type: Research

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  15. For years, paediatric critical care practitioners used the adult American European Consensus Conference (AECC) and revised Berlin Definition (BD) for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) to study the epi...

    Authors: Michelle Rudolph, Jefta van Dijk, Pauline de Jager, Sandra K. Dijkstra, Johannes G. M. Burgerhof, Robert G. T. Blokpoel and Martin C. J. Kneyber

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:256

    Content type: Research

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  16. There is relatively little published on the effects of COVID-19 on respiratory physiology, particularly breathing patterns. We sought to determine if there were lasting detrimental effect following hospital di...

    Authors: James A. Stockley, Eyas A. Alhuthail, Andrew M. Coney, Dhruv Parekh, Tarekegn Geberhiwot, Nandan Gautum, Shyam C. Madathil and Brendan G. Cooper

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:255

    Content type: Research

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  17. Iron and steel industry workers are exposed to high levels of inhalable dust particles that contain various elements, including metals, and cause occupational lung diseases. We aim to assess the relationship b...

    Authors: Nan Kong, Guoshun Chen, Haitao Wang, Jianyu Li, Shuzhen Yin, Xue Cao, Tao Wang, Xin Li, Yanan Li, Huanling Zhang, Shanfa Yu, Jinglong Tang, Akshay Sood, Yuxin Zheng and Shuguang Leng

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:254

    Content type: Research

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  18. During flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FOB) the arterial partial pressure of oxygen can drop, increasing the risk for respiratory failure. To avoid desaturation episodes during the procedure several oxygenat...

    Authors: Corrado Pelaia, Andrea Bruni, Eugenio Garofalo, Serena Rovida, Eugenio Arrighi, Gianmaria Cammarota, Paolo Navalesi, Girolamo Pelaia and Federico Longhini

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:253

    Content type: Review

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  19. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness is a typical, but non-specific feature of cough variant asthma (CVA). This study aimed to determine whether bronchial hyperresponsiveness may be considered as a predictor of CVA i...

    Authors: Aleksandra Rybka-Fraczek, Marta Dabrowska, Elzbieta M. Grabczak, Katarzyna Bialek-Gosk, Karolina Klimowicz, Olga Truba and Rafal Krenke

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:252

    Content type: Letter to the Editor

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  20. Thirty countries with the highest tuberculosis (TB) burden bear 87% of the world’s TB cases. Delayed diagnosis and treatment are detrimental to TB prognosis and sustain TB transmission in the community, making...

    Authors: Alvin Kuo Jing Teo, Shweta R. Singh, Kiesha Prem, Li Yang Hsu and Siyan Yi

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:251

    Content type: Research

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  21. Mechanical ventilation can induce or aggravate lung injury, which is termed ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). Piezo1 is a key element of the mechanotransduction process and can transduce mechanical signal...

    Authors: Yang Zhang, Lulu Jiang, Tianfeng Huang, Dahao Lu, Yue Song, Lihui Wang and Ju Gao

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:250

    Content type: Research

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  22. Elastin degradation has been established as one of the driving factors of emphysema. Elastin-derived peptides (EDPs) are shown to act as a chemoattractant for monocytes. Effectively shielding elastin from elas...

    Authors: Vaideesh Parasaram, Xiaoying Wang, Pantrika Krisanarungson and Narendra Vyavahare

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:249

    Content type: Research

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  23. Chemoresistance limits the therapeutic effect of cisplatin (DDP) on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Circular RNAs (circRNAs) function as important regulators in chemoresistance. This study aimed to explore...

    Authors: Nan Feng, Zhi Guo, Xiaokang Wu, Ying Tian, Yue Li, Yan Geng and Yan Yu

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:248

    Content type: Research

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  24. Social media is an increasingly popular source of health information, and the rarity and complexity of interstitial lung disease (ILD) may particularly draw patients with ILD to social media for information an...

    Authors: Japnam S. Grewal, Leticia Kawano-Dourado and Christopher J. Ryerson

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:247

    Content type: Review

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  25. There is a need for timely, accurate diagnosis, and personalised management in lung diseases. Exhaled breath reflects inflammatory and metabolic processes in the human body, especially in the lungs. The analys...

    Authors: I. G. van der Sar, N. Wijbenga, G. Nakshbandi, J. G. J. V. Aerts, O. C. Manintveld, M. S. Wijsenbeek, M. E. Hellemons and C. C. Moor

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:246

    Content type: Review

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  26. We performed a multicenter, randomized open-label trial in patients with moderate to severe Covid-19 treated with a range of possible treatment regimens. Methods: Patients were randomly assigned to one of thre...

    Authors: Mostafa Ghanei, Masoud Solaymani-Dodaran, Ali Qazvini, Amir Hosein Ghazale, Seyed Amin Setarehdan, Seyed Hassan Saadat, Hassan Ghobadi, Saeed Hoseininia, Maryam Elahikhah, Ali Hossein Samadi, Yousef Imani, Ensieh Vahedi, Farhang Babamahmoodi, Fatemeh Tajik Rostami, Mohammad Hossein Azimzadeh Ardebili, Akram Ansarifar…

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:245

    Content type: Research

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  27. Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is considered one of the most common genetic diseases and is characterised by the misfolding and polymerisation of the alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) protein within hepatocytes...

    Authors: Alexa Núñez, Irene Belmonte, Elena Miranda, Miriam Barrecheguren, Georgina Farago, Eduardo Loeb, Mònica Pons, Francisco Rodríguez-Frías, Pablo Gabriel-Medina, Esther Rodríguez, Joan Genescà, Marc Miravitlles and Cristina Esquinas

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:244

    Content type: Research

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  28. The effect of additional antimicrobial agents on the clinical outcomes of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is unclear.

    Authors: Ching-Yi Chen, Chao-Hsien Chen, Cheng-Yi Wang, Chih-Cheng Lai, Chien-Ming Chao and Yu-Feng Wei

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:243

    Content type: Research

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  29. Lung emphysema is an important phenotype of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and CT scanning is strongly recommended to establish the diagnosis. This study aimed to identify criteria by which phys...

    Authors: Christina Kellerer, Rudolf A. Jörres, Antonius Schneider, Peter Alter, Hans-Ulrich Kauczor, Bertram Jobst, Jürgen Biederer, Robert Bals, Henrik Watz, Jürgen Behr, Diego Kauffmann-Guerrero, Johanna Lutter, Alexander Hapfelmeier, Helgo Magnussen, Franziska C. Trudzinski, Tobias Welte…

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:242

    Content type: Research

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  30. Pulmonary hypertension (PH) complicating idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is associated to worse outcome. There is a great need for a non-invasive diagnostic modality to detect and evaluate the severity of ...

    Authors: François Harel, Quang T. Nguyen, Mohamed J. Nsaibia, Vincent Finnerty, Arielle Morgan, Martin Sirois, Louis Villeneuve, Angelino Calderone, Alexandre Bergeron, Emmanuelle Brochiero, Jean-Claude Tardif, YanFen Shi and Jocelyn Dupuis

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:240

    Content type: Research

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  31. It has been found that up-regulation of histone deacetylases 1 (HDAC1) is involved in the development of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). However, it is still unclear whether inhibition of HDAC1 suppress...

    Authors: Fangwei Li, Dan Wang, Hong Wang, Lijun Chen, Xilu Sun and Yixin Wan

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:239

    Content type: Research

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  32. Childhood asthma is a common respiratory disease characterized by airway inflammation. Tumor necrosis factor-α-induced protein 8-like 2 (TIPE2) has been found to be involved in the progression of asthma. This ...

    Authors: Huiyuan Wang, Bo Zhong, Yan Geng, Juanjuan Hao, Qiaoyan Jin, Yang Zhang, Lijuan Dong, Dan Gao, Jing Li and Wei Hou

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:238

    Content type: Research

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  33. Follow-up studies of COVID-19 patients have found lung function impairment up to six months after initial infection, but small airway function has not previously been studied. Patients (n = 20) hospitalised fo...

    Authors: Anna Lindahl, Jere Reijula, Leo Pekka Malmberg, Miia Aro, Tuula Vasankari and Mika Juhani Mäkelä

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:237

    Content type: Letter to the Editor

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  34. Rapid response systems (RRSs) improve patients’ safety, but the role of dedicated doctors within these systems remains controversial. We aimed to evaluate patient survival rates and differences in types of int...

    Authors: Hyung-Jun Kim, Kyeongman Jeon, Byung Ju Kang, Jong-Joon Ahn, Sang-Bum Hong, Dong-Hyun Lee, Jae Young Moon, Jung Soo Kim, Jisoo Park, Jae Hwa Cho, Sang-Min Lee and Yeon Joo Lee

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:236

    Content type: Research

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  35. Cigarette smoke triggers many cellular and signaling responses in the lung and the resulting inflammation plays a central role in smoke-related lung diseases, such as COPD. We explored the effects of smoking o...

    Authors: Spela Kokelj, Jörgen Östling, Benjamin Georgi, Karin Fromell, Kristina Nilsson Ekdahl, Henric K. Olsson and Anna-Carin Olin

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:234

    Content type: Research

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  36. Ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) is a common complication in the treatment of respiratory diseases with high morbidity and mortality. ETS-domain containing protein (Elk1) and Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP...

    Authors: Zhao Tao, Yan Jie, Zhang Mingru, Gu Changping, Yang Fan, Wu Haifeng and Wang Yuelan

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:233

    Content type: Research

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  37. Leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor B4 (LILRB4) is one of the inhibitory receptors in various types of immune cells including macrophages. Previous reports suggested that LILRB4 could be involved in a negat...

    Authors: Ayumi Mitsune, Mitsuhiro Yamada, Naoya Fujino, Tadahisa Numakura, Tomohiro Ichikawa, Ayumi Suzuki, Shuichiro Matsumoto, Yoshiya Mitsuhashi, Koji Itakura, Tomonori Makiguchi, Akira Koarai, Tsutomu Tamada, Shota Endo, Toshiyuki Takai, Yoshinori Okada, Satoshi Suzuki…

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:232

    Content type: Research

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  38. Inhaled epoprostenol (iEPO) has been shown to reduce pulmonary artery pressure and improve oxygenation. iEPO is mainly delivered via a syringe pump with feed tubing connected to a vibrating mesh nebulizer with...

    Authors: Jie Li, Ashley E. Augustynovich, Payal K. Gurnani and James B. Fink

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:231

    Content type: Research

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  39. Agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ have been suggested as potential adjuvant therapy in bacterial pneumonia because of their capacity to inhibit inflammation and enhance bacterial ...

    Authors: Ivan Ramirez-Moral, Bianca Lima Ferreira, Alex F. de Vos and Tom van der Poll

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:230

    Content type: Letter to the Editor

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  40. The multidimensional and complex care needs of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) call for appropriate care models. This systematic review aimed to identify care models or components thereof tha...

    Authors: Anouk Delameillieure, Sarah Vandekerkhof, Bastiaan Van Grootven, Wim A. Wuyts and Fabienne Dobbels

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:229

    Content type: Review

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  41. Transbronchial cryobiopsy in the evaluation of patients with interstitial lung diseases (ILD) is expected to reduce the need for surgical lung biopsy (SLB).

    Authors: Katrin E. Hostettler, Michael Tamm, Lukas Bubendorf, Peter Grendelmeier, Kathleen Jahn, Daiana Stolz, Jens Bremerich and Spasenija Savic Prince

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:228

    Content type: Letter to the Editor

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  42. The innate and adaptive immune system is involved in the airway inflammation associated with acute exacerbations in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We evaluated the association of m...

    Authors: Severin Vogt, Jörg D. Leuppi, Philipp Schuetz, Beat Mueller, Carmen Volken, Sarah Dräger, Marten Trendelenburg, Jonas Rutishauser and Michael Osthoff

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:227

    Content type: Research

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  43. Chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (CHP) is an interstitial lung disease (ILD) caused by long term exposure to an offending antigen. Antigen avoidance is associated with improved outcomes. We are unable to i...

    Authors: Kerri I. Aronson, Ronan O’Beirne, Fernando J. Martinez and Monika M. Safford

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:225

    Content type: Research

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  44. Sarcoidosis most commonly affects lungs and intrathoracic lymph nodes, but any other organ can be involved. In epidemiological studies, many occupational and environmental exposures have been linked to sarcoid...

    Authors: Steven Ronsmans, Jolien De Ridder, Eline Vandebroek, Stephan Keirsbilck, Benoit Nemery, Peter H. M. Hoet, Steven Vanderschueren, Wim A. Wuyts and Jonas Yserbyt

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:224

    Content type: Research

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