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  1. There are several signalling pathways involved in lung organogenesis including Notch, TGFβ /BMP, Sonic hedgehog (Shh), FGF, EGF, and Wnt. Despite the widely acknowledged significance of Wnt signalling in embry...

    Authors: Judit E Pongracz and Robert A Stockley
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:15
  2. Intensive care unit (ICU) admission of adults with cystic fibrosis (CF) is controversial because of poor outcome. This appraisal needs re-evaluation following recent changes in both CF management and ICU daily...

    Authors: Joëlle Texereau, Dany Jamal, Gérald Choukroun, Pierre-Régis Burgel, Jean-Luc Diehl, Antoine Rabbat, Philippe Loirat, Antoine Parrot, Alexandre Duguet, Joël Coste, Daniel Dusser, Dominique Hubert and Jean-Paul Mira
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:14
  3. To compare the efficacy and safety of budesonide/formoterol (Symbicort®) with formoterol (Oxis®) in the treatment of patients with acute asthma who showed evidence of refractoriness to short-acting β2-agonist the...

    Authors: ED Bateman, L Fairall, DM Lombardi and R English
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:13
  4. Activated fibroblasts, which have previously been obtained from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), are proposed to be important cells in the fibrotic processes of asthma and scleroderma (SSc). We have studie...

    Authors: Kristoffer Larsen, Johan Malmström, Marie Wildt, Camilla Dahlqvist, Lennart Hansson, György Marko-Varga, Leif Bjermer, Agneta Scheja and Gunilla Westergren-Thorsson
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:11
  5. Spherical monodisperse ferromagnetic iron oxide particles of 1.9 μm geometric and 4.2 μm aerodynamic diameter were inhaled by seven patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) using the shallow bolus techni...

    Authors: Winfried Möller, Karl Häußinger, Löms Ziegler-Heitbrock and Joachim Heyder
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:10
  6. Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a proliferative vascular disease, characterized by aberrant regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation and apoptosis in distal pulmonary arteries. Prostacyclin (PGI2) analog...

    Authors: Ellena J Growcott, Karen G Spink, Xiaohui Ren, Saliha Afzal, Kathy H Banner and John Wharton
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:9
  7. Complete tooth loss (edentulism) produces anatomical changes that may impair upper airway size and function. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether edentulism favours the occurrence of obstructive sleep...

    Authors: Caterina Bucca, Alessandro Cicolin, Luisa Brussino, Andrea Arienti, Alessandra Graziano, Francesco Erovigni, Paolo Pera, Valerio Gai, Roberto Mutani, Giulio Preti, Giovanni Rolla and Stefano Carossa
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:8
  8. A correlation between interstial pulmonary matrix disorganization and lung cellular response was recently documented in cardiogenic interstitial edema as changes in the signal-cellular transduction platforms (...

    Authors: Laura Botto, Egidio Beretta, Rossella Daffara, Giuseppe Miserocchi and Paola Palestini
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:7
  9. Using guinea pig tracheal preparations, we have recently shown that endogenous arginase activity attenuates inhibitory nonadrenergic noncholinergic (iNANC) nerve-mediated airway smooth muscle relaxation by red...

    Authors: Harm Maarsingh, John Leusink, I Sophie T Bos, Johan Zaagsma and Herman Meurs
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:6
  10. We investigated efficacy of inhaled nitric oxide (NO) in modulation of metabolism of phosphatidylcholine (PC) of pulmonary surfactant and in anti-inflammatory mechanism of mature lungs with inflammatory injury.

    Authors: Xiaohui Gong, Chunbao Guo, Shibing Huang and Bo Sun
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:5
  11. Alveolar macrophages (AM) are known to play an important role in the regulation of inflammatory reactions in the lung, e.g. during the development of chronic lung diseases. Exposure of rats to NO2 has recently be...

    Authors: Holger Garn, Anette Siese, Sabine Stumpf, Anka Wensing, Harald Renz and Diethard Gemsa
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:4
  12. Exposure to cigarette smoking during foetal and early postnatal life may have implications for lung health. The aim of this study was to assess the possible effects of such exposure in utero on lower respirato...

    Authors: Eva Lannerö, Magnus Wickman, Goran Pershagen and Lennart Nordvall
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:3
  13. To elucidate further the pathogenesis of sporadic, idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) and identify potential therapeutic avenues, differential gene expression in IPAH was examined by suppression...

    Authors: Alasdair J Edgar, Matilde R Chacón, Anne E Bishop, Magdi H Yacoub and Julia M Polak
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:1
  14. Asthma and rhinitis are often co-morbid conditions. As rhinitis often precedes asthma it is possible that effective treatment of allergic rhinitis may reduce asthma progression.

    Authors: Riccardo Polosa, Wael K Al-Delaimy, Cristina Russo, Giovita Piccillo and Maria Sarvà
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:153
  15. Lung function and exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have been associated with short-term exposure to air pollution. However, the effect of long-term exposure to particulate matter f...

    Authors: Tamara Schikowski, Dorothea Sugiri, Ulrich Ranft, Ulrike Gehring, Joachim Heinrich, H-Erich Wichmann and Ursula Krämer
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:152
  16. Irreversible airflow obstruction in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is thought to result from airway remodelling associated with aberrant inflammation. Patients who experience frequent episodes of...

    Authors: PF Mercer, JK Shute, A Bhowmik, GC Donaldson, JA Wedzicha and JA Warner
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:151
  17. Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a recently discovered respiratory virus associated with bronchiolitis, pneumonia, croup and exacerbations of asthma. Since respiratory viruses are frequently detected in patient...

    Authors: G Rohde, I Borg, U Arinir, J Kronsbein, R Rausse, TT Bauer, A Bufe and G Schultze-Werninghaus
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:150
  18. Recent consensus statements demonstrate the breadth of the chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) differential diagnosis. However, the classification and mechanisms of different CRS phenotypes remains problematic.

    Authors: James N Baraniuk and Hilda Maibach
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:149
  19. The elastolytic enzyme matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-12 has been implicated in the development of airway inflammation and remodeling. We investigated whether human airway smooth muscle cells could express and...

    Authors: Shaoping Xie, Razao Issa, Maria B Sukkar, Ute Oltmanns, Pankaj K Bhavsar, Alberto Papi, Gaetano Caramori, Ian Adcock and K Fan Chung
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:148
  20. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is associated with a chronic inflammatory response of the host to chronic exposure to inhaled toxic gases and particles. Although inflammatory cells of both the innate and...

    Authors: An I D'hulst, Tania Maes, Ken R Bracke, Ingel K Demedts, Kurt G Tournoy, Guy F Joos and Guy G Brusselle
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:147
  21. α1-antitrypsin and surfactant protein-A (SP-A) are major lung defense proteins. With the hypothesis that SP-A could bind α1-antitrypsin, we designed a series of in vitro experiments aimed at investigating the nat...

    Authors: Marina Gorrini, Anna Lupi, Paolo Iadarola, Conceição Dos Santos, Paola Rognoni, Daniele Dalzoppo, Natalia Carrabino, Ernesto Pozzi, Aldo Baritussio and Maurizio Luisetti
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:146
  22. Inhaled mannitol is a new bronchial provocation test (BPT) developed to improve portability and standardisation of osmotic challenge testing. Osmotic challenge tests have an advantage over the traditional meth...

    Authors: John D Brannan, Sandra D Anderson, Clare P Perry, Ruth Freed-Martens, Anna R Lassig and Brett Charlton
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:144
  23. Extracellular ATP may modulate airway responsiveness. Studies on ATP-induced contraction and [Ca2+]i signalling in airway smooth muscle are rather controversial and discrepancies exist regarding both ATP effects ...

    Authors: Boutchi Mounkaïla, Roger Marthan and Etienne Roux
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:143
  24. Apoptosis of fibroblasts may be key for the removal of cells following repair processes. Contraction of three-dimensional collagen gels is a model of wound healing and remodeling. Here two potent inducers of c...

    Authors: Tetsu Kobayashi, Xiangde Liu, Hui Jung Kim, Tadashi Kohyama, Fu-Qiang Wen, Shinji Abe, Qiuhong Fang, Yun Kui Zhu, John R Spurzem, Peter Bitterman and Stephen I Rennard
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:141
  25. Increased airway epithelial proliferation is frequently observed in smokers. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms leading to these epithelial changes, we studied the effect of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC)...

    Authors: Fabrizio Luppi, Jamil Aarbiou, Sandra van Wetering, Irfan Rahman, Willem I de Boer, Klaus F Rabe and Pieter S Hiemstra
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:140
  26. This study seeks to compare the ability of repeatable invasive and noninvasive lung function methods to assess allergen-specific and cholinergic airway responsiveness (AR) in intact, spontaneously breathing BA...

    Authors: Thomas Glaab, Michaela Ziegert, Ralf Baelder, Regina Korolewitz, Armin Braun, Jens M Hohlfeld, Wayne Mitzner, Norbert Krug and Heinz G Hoymann
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:139
  27. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare disease, characterized by excessive intra-alveolar accumulation of surfactant lipids and proteins. Therapeutic whole lung lavages are currently the principle ther...

    Authors: Christian Paschen, Karl Reiter, Franz Stanzel, Helmut Teschler and Matthias Griese
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:138
  28. Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) is crucial for the control of mycobacterial infection as TNF deficient (KO) die rapidly of uncontrolled infection with necrotic pneumonia. Here we investigated the role of membrane...

    Authors: Cecile Fremond, Nasiema Allie, Ivy Dambuza, Sergei I Grivennikov, Vladimir Yeremeev, Valerie FJ Quesniaux, Muazzam Jacobs and Bernhard Ryffel
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:136
  29. Fatal human respiratory disease associated with influenza A subtype H5N1 has been documented in Hong Kong, and more recently in Vietnam, Thailand and Cambodia. We previously demonstrated that patients with H5N...

    Authors: MCW Chan, CY Cheung, WH Chui, SW Tsao, JM Nicholls, YO Chan, RWY Chan, HT Long, LLM Poon, Y Guan and JSM Peiris
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:135
  30. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, dramatically increasing rates of tuberculosis and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) have been reported from several countries. This development has been mainly a...

    Authors: Helen Suzanne Cox, Tanja Kubica, Daribay Doshetov, Yared Kebede, Sabine Rüsch-Gerdess and Stefan Niemann
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:134
  31. In a cross-sectional analysis of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with mild lung disease, reduced surfactant activity was correlated to increased neutrophilic airway inflammation, but not to lung function. So far...

    Authors: Matthias Griese, Robert Essl, Reinhold Schmidt, Manfred Ballmann, Karl Paul, Ernst Rietschel and Felix Ratjen
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:133
  32. The distribution of airway responsiveness in a general population of non-smokers without respiratory symptoms has not been established, limiting its use in clinical and epidemiological practice. We derived ref...

    Authors: Pierre-Yves Jayet, Christian Schindler, Nino Künzli, Jean-Pierre Zellweger, Otto Brändli, André Paul Perruchoud, Roland Keller, Joel Schwartz, Ursula Ackermann-Liebrich and Philippe Leuenberger
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:131
  33. Human β-defensin-4 (hBD-4), a new member of the β-defensin family, was discovered by an analysis of the genomic sequence. The objective of this study was to clarify hBD-4 expression in human lung tissue, along...

    Authors: Shigehisa Yanagi, Jun-ichi Ashitani, Hiroshi Ishimoto, Yukari Date, Hiroshi Mukae, Naoyoshi Chino and Masamitsu Nakazato
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:130
  34. Persistent inflammation and associated excessive oxidative stress have been crucially implicated in quartz-induced pulmonary diseases, including fibrosis and cancer. We have investigated the significance of th...

    Authors: Catrin Albrecht, Ad M Knaapen, Andrea Becker, Doris Höhr, Petra Haberzettl, Frederik J van Schooten, Paul JA Borm and Roel PF Schins
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:129
  35. The aim of the study was to assess the chronic effects of combined phosphodiesterase 3/4 inhibitor tolafentrine, administered by inhalation, during monocrotaline-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) i...

    Authors: Soni Pullamsetti, Stefanie Krick, Hüseyin Yilmaz, Ardeschir Hossein Ghofrani, Christian Schudt, Norbert Weissmann, Beate Fuchs, Werner Seeger, Friedrich Grimminger and Ralph Theo Schermuly
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:128
  36. In the backdrop of conflicting reports (some studies reported adverse outcomes of biomass fuel use whereas few studies reported absence of any association between adverse health effect and fuel use, may be due...

    Authors: Asim Saha, N Mohan Rao, PK Kulkarni, PK Majumdar and HN Saiyed
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:127
  37. We have shown previously that surfactant protein D (SP-D) binds and agglutinates Streptococcus pneumoniae in vitro. In this study, the role of SP-D in innate immunity against S. pneumoniae was investigated in viv...

    Authors: R Jounblat, H Clark, P Eggleton, S Hawgood, PW Andrew and A Kadioglu
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:126
  38. Bone marrow (BM) cells are promising tools for vascular therapies. Here, we focused on the possibility of targeting the hypoxia-induced pulmonary artery hypertension remodeling with systemic delivery of BM-der...

    Authors: Y Gaël Rochefort, Pascal Vaudin, Nicolas Bonnet, Jean-Christophe Pages, Jorge Domenech, Pierre Charbord and Véronique Eder
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:125
  39. Uridine 5'-triphosphate (UTP) and uridine 5'-diphosphate (UDP) act via P2Y receptors to evoke contraction of rat pulmonary arteries, whilst adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) acts via P2X and P2Y receptors. Pharm...

    Authors: Krongkarn Chootip, Alison M Gurney and Charles Kennedy
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:124
  40. Alcohol abuse has long been known to adversely affect innate and adaptive immune responses and pre-dispose to infections. One cellular mechanism responsible for this effect is alcohol-induced suppression of TN...

    Authors: Kejing Song, Xue-Jun Zhao, Luis Marrero, Peter Oliver, Steve Nelson and Jay K Kolls
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:123
  41. Neurotoxicity and pulmonary dysfunction are well-recognized problems associated with prolonged human exposure to high concentrations of airborne manganese. Surprisingly, histological characterization of pulmon...

    Authors: David C Dorman, Melanie F Struve, Elizabeth A Gross, Brian A Wong and Paul C Howroyd
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:121
  42. Recent studies have demonstrated marked international variations in the prevalence of asthma, but less is known about ethnic variations in asthma epidemiology within individual countries and in particular the ...

    Authors: Gopalakrishnan Netuveli, Brian Hurwitz and Aziz Sheikh
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:120
  43. The role of leukotriene (LT) B4, a potent inflammatory mediator, in atopic asthmatic and atopic nonasthmatic children is largely unknown. The lack of a gold standard technique for measuring LTB4 in exhaled breath...

    Authors: Paolo Montuschi, Simona Martello, Marialinda Felli, Chiara Mondino, Peter J Barnes and Marcello Chiarotti
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:119

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