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  1. COVID-19 is a complex and heterogeneous disease. The pathogenesis and the complications of the disease are not fully elucidated, and increasing evidence shows that SARS-CoV-2 causes a systemic inflammatory dis...

    Authors: Stefano Aliberti, Francesco Amati, Maria Pappalettera, Marta Di Pasquale, Alice D’Adda, Marco Mantero, Andrea Gramegna, Edoardo Simonetta, Anna Maria Oneta, Emilia Privitera, Andrea Gori, Giorgio Bozzi, Flora Peyvandi, Francesca Minoia, Giovanni Filocamo, Chiara Abbruzzese…

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:260

    Content type: Review

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  2. Both glaucoma and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are widespread diseases. OSA may presumably partly cause or worsen glaucoma, although the etiopathogenesis is unclear. Here we analyze for the first time the pos...

    Authors: Katharina Bahr, Michael Bopp, Waeel Kewader, Henri Dootz, Julia Döge, Tilman Huppertz, Perikles Simon, Verena Prokosch-Willing, Christoph Matthias and Haralampos Gouveris

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:258

    Content type: Research

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  3. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) spread rapidly around the world. We aimed to describe the epidemiological characteristics and the entire evolution of COVID-19 in Wuhan, and to evaluate the effect of non-ph...

    Authors: Dongming Wang, Jing Cai, Tingming Shi, Yang Xiao, Xiaobing Feng, Meng Yang, Wenzhen Li, Wei Liu, Linling Yu, Zi Ye, Tao Xu, Jixuan Ma, Mingyan Li and Weihong Chen

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:257

    Content type: Research

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  4. Glucocorticoids (GCs) and β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) agonists improve asthma outcomes in most patients. GCs also modulate gene expression in human airway smooth muscle (HASM), thereby attenuating airway inflam...

    Authors: Elena Chung, Christie A. Ojiaku, Gaoyuan Cao, Vishal Parikh, Brian Deeney, Shengjie Xu, Serena Wang, Reynold A. Panettieri Jr and Cynthia Koziol-White

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:256

    Content type: Research

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  5. Lung ultrasound (LUS) in combination with a biomarker has not yet been studied. We propose a clinical trial where the primary aims are: 1. To assess whether an algorithm with LUS and procalcitonin (PCT) may be...

    Authors: Javier Rodríguez-Fanjul, Carmina Guitart, Sara Bobillo-Perez, Mònica Balaguer and Iolanda Jordan

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:255

    Content type: Study protocol

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  6. Previous studies suggested that the prone position (PP) improves oxygenation and reduces mortality among patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, the mechanism of this clinical benefi...

    Authors: Kyung Min Shin, Jiwoong Choi, Kum Ju Chae, Gong Yong Jin, Ali Eskandari, Eric A. Hoffman, Chase Hall, Mario Castro and Chang Hyun Lee

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:254

    Content type: Research

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  7. Manual auscultation to detect abnormal breath sounds has poor inter-observer reliability. Digital stethoscopes with artificial intelligence (AI) could improve reliable detection of these sounds. We aimed to in...

    Authors: Ajay Kevat, Anaath Kalirajah and Robert Roseby

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:253

    Content type: Research

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  8. SARS-CoV-2 is causing a pandemic with currently > 29 million confirmed cases and > 900,000 deaths worldwide. The locations and mechanisms of virus entry into the human respiratory tract are incompletely charac...

    Authors: Magdalena Matusiak and Christian M. Schürch

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:252

    Content type: Letter to the Editor

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  9. The association between diurnal temperature range (DTR) and hospitalization for exacerbation of chronic respiratory diseases (CRD) was rarely reported.

    Authors: Zihui Wang, Yumin Zhou, Ming Luo, Huajing Yang, Shan Xiao, Xiaoliang Huang, Yubo Ou, Yongbo Zhang, Xianzhong Duan, Wei Hu, Chenghao Liao, Yijia Zheng, Long Wang, Min Xie, Longhui Tang, Jinzhen Zheng…

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:251

    Content type: Research

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  10. The role of the ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) in maintaining cellular lipid homeostasis in cardiovascular disease is well established. More recently, the important beneficial role played by ABCA1...

    Authors: Patrick He, Ingrid C. Gelissen and Alaina J. Ammit

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:250

    Content type: Review

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  11. In the article “The pathophysiology of ‘happy’ hypoxemia in COVID-19,” Dhont et al. (Respir Res 21:198, 2020) discuss pathophysiological mechanisms that may be responsible for the absence of dyspnea in patient...

    Authors: Martin J. Tobin, Amal Jubran and Franco Laghi

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:249

    Content type: Letter to the Editor

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  12. Indacaterol maleate delivered with the Breezhaler® inhalation device is a long-acting β2-agonist approved for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In the development of a once daily, inhaled fixed dose combinat...

    Authors: David Miller, Soniya Vaidya, Juergen Jauernig, Brian Ethell, Kristina Wagner, Rajkumar Radhakrishnan and Hanns-Christian Tillmann

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:248

    Content type: Research

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  13. Ambient air pollution can contribute to the development and exacerbation of COPD. However, the influence of air pollution on objective COPD phenotypes, especially from imaging, is not well studied. We investig...

    Authors: Sung Ok Kwon, Seok Ho Hong, Young-Ji Han, So Hyeon Bak, Junghyun Kim, Mi Kyeong Lee, Stephanie J. London, Woo Jin Kim and Sun-Young Kim

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:247

    Content type: Research

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  14. This study evaluated the efficacy, safety and tolerability of the novel inhaled phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor CHF6001 added-on to formoterol in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

    Authors: Dave Singh, Aida Emirova, Catherine Francisco, Debora Santoro, Mirco Govoni and Marie Anna Nandeuil

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:246

    Content type: Research

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  15. The COVID-19 pandemic has led to more than 760,000 deaths worldwide (correct as of 16th August 2020). Studies suggest a hyperinflammatory response is a major cause of disease severity and death. Identitfying C...

    Authors: H. Burke, A. Freeman, D. C. Cellura, B. L. Stuart, N. J. Brendish, S. Poole, F. Borca, H. T. T. Phan, N. Sheard, S. Williams, C. M. Spalluto, K. J. Staples, T. W. Clark and T. M. A. Wilkinson

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:245

    Content type: Research

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  16. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is the most common complication of prematurity and significantly contributes to mortality and morbidity with few predictive biomarkers. Given that nitrites have been implicated...

    Authors: Samuel J. Gentle, Amelia Freeman, Rakesh P. Patel, Namasivayam Ambalavanan and Charitharth V. Lal

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:244

    Content type: Letter to the Editor

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  17. To explain the excess cardiovascular mortality observed in the SERVE-HF study, it was hypothesized that the high-pressure ASV default settings used lead to inappropriate ventilation, cascading negative consequ...

    Authors: Dany Jaffuel, Claudio Rabec, Carole Philippe, Jean-Pierre Mallet, Marjolaine Georges, Stefania Redolfi, Alain Palot, Carey M. Suehs, Erika Nogue, Nicolas Molinari and Arnaud Bourdin

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:243

    Content type: Research

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  18. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of death in the United States with no effective treatment. The current diagnostic method, spirometry, does not accurately reflect the sev...

    Authors: Ding Liu, Maureen Meister, Shiying Zhang, Chi-In Vong, Shuaishuai Wang, Ruixie Fang, Lei Li, Peng George Wang, Pierre Massion and Xiangming Ji

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:242

    Content type: Research

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  19. Patients with cardiovascular comorbidities are at high risk of poor outcome from COVID-19. However, how the burden (number) of vascular risk factors influences the risk of severe COVID-19 disease remains unres...

    Authors: Houwei Du, Xiaobin Pan, Nan Liu, Junnian Chen, Xiaoling Chen, David J. Werring, Gareth Ambler, Xiaoqing Li, Ronghua Chen, Yixian Zhang, Huayao Huang, Feifei Lin, Pincang Xia, Chao Chen, Zhenyang Zheng, Sangru Wu…

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:241

    Content type: Research

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  20. Smoking-related chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with dysregulated production of mucus. Mucins (MUC) are important both for mucus secretion and epithelial defense. We have examined th...

    Authors: Heta Merikallio, Riitta Kaarteenaho, Sara Lindén, Médea Padra, Reza Karimi, Chuan-Xing Li, Elisa Lappi-Blanco, Åsa M. Wheelock and Magnus C. Sköld

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:239

    Content type: Research

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  21. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterised by progressive airflow limitation and chronic inflammation. Predicting exacerbations of COPD, which contribute to disease progression, is important...

    Authors: Dave Singh, Jadwiga A. Wedzicha, Salman Siddiqui, Alberto de la Hoz, Wenqiong Xue, Helgo Magnussen, Marc Miravitlles, James D. Chalmers and Peter M. A. Calverley

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:240

    Content type: Research

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  22. Previously, it has been shown that obesity is a risk factor for recovery, regeneration, and tissue repair after blunt trauma and can affect the rate of muscle recovery and collagen deposition after trauma. To ...

    Authors: Pengfei Xu, Fabian Gärtner, Adrian Gihring, Congxing Liu, Timo Burster, Martin Wabitsch, Uwe Knippschild and Stephan Paschke

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:238

    Content type: Research

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  23. Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) regulates multiple aspects of innate immunity and tissue inflammation. Recently, it has been reported that PTX3 deficiency enhances interleukin (IL)-17A–dominant pulmonary inflammation in an...

    Authors: Pengfei Gao, Kun Tang, Yanjiao Lu, Zhenli Huang, Shanshan Wang, Meijia Wang, Jianmiao Wang, Jianping Zhao and Jungang Xie

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:237

    Content type: Research

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  24. Spontaneous pneumothorax is an uncommon complication of COVID-19 viral pneumonia. The exact incidence and risk factors are still unknown. Herein we review the incidence and outcomes of pneumothorax in over 300...

    Authors: Massa Zantah, Eduardo Dominguez Castillo, Ryan Townsend, Fusun Dikengil and Gerard J. Criner

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:236

    Content type: Research

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  25. Heat shock protein 47 (HSP47), a collagen-binding protein, has a specific role in the intracellular processing of procollagen production. HSP47 expression is associated with cancer growth and metastasis in sev...

    Authors: Takuto Miyamura, Noriho Sakamoto, Kaori Ishida, Tomoyuki Kakugawa, Hirokazu Taniguchi, Yoshiko Akiyama, Daisuke Okuno, Atsuko Hara, Takashi Kido, Hiroshi Ishimoto, Takuro Miyazaki, Keitaro Matsumoto, Tomoshi Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki Yamaguchi, Taiga Miyazaki, Yasushi Obase…

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:234

    Content type: Research

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  26. The airway epithelium (AE) forms the first line of defence against harmful particles and pathogens. Barrier failure of the airway epithelium contributes to exacerbations of a range of lung diseases that are co...

    Authors: Jon Petur Joelsson, Jennifer A. Kricker, Ari J. Arason, Snaevar Sigurdsson, Bryndis Valdimarsdottir, Fridrik Runar Gardarsson, Clive P. Page, Fredrik Lehmann, Thorarinn Gudjonsson and Saevar Ingthorsson

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:233

    Content type: Research

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  27. Ferroptosis is a new type of nonapoptotic cell death model that was closely related to reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. Seawater drowning-induced acute lung injury (ALI) which is caused by severe ox...

    Authors: Yu-bao Qiu, Bin-bin Wan, Gang Liu, Ya-xian Wu, Dan Chen, Mu-dan Lu, Jun-liang Chen, Ren-qiang Yu, Dao-zhen Chen and Qing-feng Pang

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:232

    Content type: Research

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  28. Navafenterol (AZD8871) is a novel, long-acting, dual-pharmacology (muscarinic receptor antagonist and β2−adrenoceptor agonist) molecule in development for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma.

    Authors: Victor Balaguer, Muna Albayaty, Eulalia Jimenez, Ulrika Wählby-Hamrén, Carol Astbury, Beatriz Seoane, Marie-Pierre Malice, Alejhandra Lei, Ajay Aggarwal and Ioannis Psallidas

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21(Suppl 1):212

    Content type: Research

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    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 21 Supplement 1

  29. Navafenterol (AZD8871) is an inhaled long-acting dual-pharmacology muscarinic antagonist/β2-adrenoceptor agonist (MABA) in development for the treatment of obstructive airways diseases. The safety, tolerability, ...

    Authors: Eulalia Jimenez, Carol Astbury, Muna Albayaty, Ulrika Wählby-Hamrén, Beatriz Seoane, Cristina Villarroel, Helena Pujol, Maria Jesus Bermejo, Ajay Aggarwal and Ioannis Psallidas

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21(Suppl 1):211

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 21 Supplement 1

  30. Navafenterol (AZD8871) is a dual-pharmacology muscarinic antagonist β2−agonist (MABA) molecule in development for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The pharmacodynamics, safety and to...

    Authors: Dave Singh, Victor Balaguer, Carol Astbury, Ulrika Wählby-Hamrén, Eulalia Jimenez, Beatriz Seoane, Cristina Villarroel, Alejhandra Lei, Ajay Aggarwal and Ioannis Psallidas

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21(Suppl 1):102

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 21 Supplement 1

  31. Although increasing data supports the use of transbronchial lung cryobiopsies (TBLCs) for the diagnosis of diffuse parenchymal lung diseases (DPLDs), its role as an alternative to surgical lung biopsy (SLB) is...

    Authors: Benjamin Bondue, Dimitri Leduc, Antoine Froidure, Thierry Pieters, Olivier Taton, Vincent Heinen, Patrick Alexander, Delphine Hoton, Florence Dome and Myriam Remmelink

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:231

    Content type: Research

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  32. Early life exposure in the uterus had a long-term effect on children’s health. As the prevalence of allergies is increasing with a remarkable sex difference, very few studies have traced back to their early or...

    Authors: Yiting Chen, Jiajun Lyu, Yuanqing Xia, Jianzhen Zhu, Shilu Tong, Yong Ying, Jiajie Qu and Shenghui Li

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:230

    Content type: Research

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  33. Emphysema is a crucial pathological characteristic of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Oxidative stress, apoptosis and epigenetic mechanisms contribute to the pathogenesis of emphysema. However, a...

    Authors: Huihui Zeng, Tiao Li, Xue He, Shan Cai, Hong Luo, Ping Chen and Yan Chen

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:229

    Content type: Research

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  34. Emphysema in asymptomatic heavy smokers can be detected during CT-scan screening for lung cancer. Metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been found to play a role in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary d...

    Authors: Jun-Chieh J. Tsay, Yingjie Hu, Judith D. Goldberg, Bin Wang, Soumya Vijayalekshmy, Ting-An Yie, Katrina Bantis, Daniel H. Sterman and William N. Rom

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:228

    Content type: Research

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  35. AKT2 is highly expressed in many human cancers, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Accumulating evidence has also revealed that AKT2 can promote NSCLC cell proliferation and metastasis. However, the...

    Authors: Ting Liu, Jianjie Zhu, Wenwen Du, Weiwei Ning, Yang Zhang, Yuanyuan Zeng, Zeyi Liu and Jian-An Huang

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:227

    Content type: Research

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  36. Bronchial asthma (BA) has different phenotypes, and it requires a clinically effective subtype classification system. The impulse oscillometry system (IOS) is an emerging technique device used in respiratory f...

    Authors: Hiroyuki Sugawara, Atsushi Saito, Saori Yokoyama, Kazunori Tsunematsu, Hirofumi Chiba and Hiroki Takahashi

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:226

    Content type: Research

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  37. It is unclear whether sarcoidosis, a multisystem inflammatory disease, is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. We aimed to assess the risk of adverse maternal and infant outcomes in sarcoidosis pregnanc...

    Authors: Laura Köcher, Marios Rossides, Katarina Remaeus, Johan Grunewald, Anders Eklund, Susanna Kullberg and Elizabeth V. Arkema

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:225

    Content type: Research

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  38. Within two decades, there have emerged three highly pathogenic and deadly human coronaviruses, namely SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. The economic burden and health threats caused by these coronaviruses are...

    Authors: Zhixing Zhu, Xihua Lian, Xiaoshan Su, Weijing Wu, Giuseppe A. Marraro and Yiming Zeng

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:224

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  39. The potential role of adjunctive anti-inflammatory therapy to enhance tuberculosis (TB) treatment has recently received increasing interest. There is, therefore, a need to broadly examine current host-directed...

    Authors: Frank Ekow Atta Hayford, Robin Claire Dolman, Renee Blaauw, Arista Nienaber, Cornelius Mattheus Smuts, Linda Malan and Cristian Ricci

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:223

    Content type: Review

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  40. Cystic fibrosis (CF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are associated with acute and chronic bacterial infections of the lung. Excessive differentiation of basal cells to mucus-producing goblet ...

    Authors: Richard F. Sprott, Felix Ritzmann, Frank Langer, Yiwen Yao, Christian Herr, Yvonne Kohl, Thomas Tschernig, Robert Bals and Christoph Beisswenger

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:222

    Content type: Letter to the Editor

    Published on:

  41. CXCR4, a transmembrane-receptor located on epithelial cells that is activated by CXCL12, may have a role in IPF via migration of CXCR4+ fibrocytes to the lung. However, its expression has not been fully character...

    Authors: Jade Jaffar, Kate Griffiths, Sara Oveissi, Mubing Duan, Michael Foley, Ian Glaspole, Karen Symons, Louise Organ and Glen Westall

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:221

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  42. Reflux of gastric content has been associated with recurrent exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We aimed to assess the prevalence of laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) in COPD and if LP...

    Authors: Julia Sanchez, Desiree M. Schumann, Meropi Karakioulaki, Eleni Papakonstantinou, Frank Rassouli, Matthias Frasnelli, Martin Brutsche, Michael Tamm and Daiana Stolz

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:220

    Content type: Letter to the Editor

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  43. Recognition of disorder phenotypes may help to estimate prognosis and to guide the clinical management. Current cough management guidelines classify patients according to the duration of the cough episode. How...

    Authors: Heikki O. Koskela, Tuomas A. Selander and Anne M. Lätti

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:219

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  44. Contemporarily authoritative algorithms for the prediction of acute pulmonary embolism (PE) comprise the Standard algorithm, the Age-adjusted algorithm, the YEARS algorithm, the PERC algorithm, and the PEGeD a...

    Authors: Wei Xiong, He Du, Mei Xu, Wei Ding, Jinyuan Sun, Fengfeng Han and Xuejun Guo

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:218

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  45. Airway clearance techniques (ACTs) are an important aspect of the treatment of children with chronic obstructive lung diseases. Unfortunately, a sound evidence base is lacking and airway clearance strategies a...

    Authors: Eline Lauwers, Kris Ides, Kim Van Hoorenbeeck and Stijn Verhulst

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:217

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  46. The development of effective nutritional supports for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) is still challenging. This study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of daily consumption...

    Authors: Afsane Ahmadi, Mohammad Hassan Eftekhari, Zohreh Mazloom, Masoom Masoompour, Mohammad Fararooei, Mohammad Hadi Eskandari, Samrad Mehrabi, Alireza Bedeltavana, Mandana Famouri, Morteza Zare, Nasrin Nasimi and Zahra Sohrabi

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:216

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  47. Endothelial injury is one of the predominant pathophysiological characteristics of sepsis and is the major cause of sepsis-induced multiple organ failure. Endothelial pyroptosis is a fatal mechanism of endothe...

    Authors: Fei Peng, Wei Chang, Qin Sun, Xinyi Xu, Jianfeng Xie, Haibo Qiu and Yi Yang

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:215

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  48. Severe asthma (SA) may require frequent courses or chronic use of oral corticosteroids (OCS), inducing many known side effects and complications. Therefore, it is important to identify risk factors of chronic ...

    Authors: S. Graff, S. Vanwynsberghe, G. Brusselle, S. Hanon, C. Sohy, L. J. Dupont, R. Peche, A. Michils, C. Pilette, G. Joos, R. E. Louis and F. N. Schleich

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:214

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  49. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: A. M. Fratta Pasini, C. Stranieri, M. Ferrari, U. Garbin, L. Cazzoletti, C. Mozzini, F. Spelta, D. Peserico and L. Cominacini

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:213

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Respiratory Research 2020 21:37

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