Developmental lung expression and transcriptional regulation of Claudin-6 by TTF-1, Gata-6, and FoxA2
© Jimenez et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2014
Received: 11 March 2014
Accepted: 23 June 2014
Published: 26 June 2014
Claudins are transmembrane proteins expressed in tight junctions that prevent paracellular transport of extracellular fluid and a variety of other substances. However, the expression profile of Claudin-6 (Cldn6) in the developing lung has not been characterized.
Methods and results
Cldn6 expression was determined during important periods of lung organogenesis by microarray analysis, qPCR and immunofluorescence. Expression patterns were confirmed to peak at E12.5 and diminish as lung development progressed. Immunofluorescence revealed that Cldn6 was detected in cells that also express TTF-1 and FoxA2, two critical transcriptional regulators of pulmonary branching morphogenesis. Cldn6 was also observed in cells that express Sox2 and Sox9, factors that influence cell differentiation in the proximal and distal lung, respectively. In order to assess transcriptional control of Cldn6, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0-kb of the proximal murine Cldn6 promoter was ligated into a luciferase reporter and co-transfected with expression vectors for TTF-1 or two of its important transcriptional co-regulators, FoxA2 and Gata-6. In almost every instance, TTF-1, FoxA2, and Gata-6 activated gene transcription in cell lines characteristic of proximal airway epithelium (Beas2B) and distal alveolar epithelium (A-549).
These data revealed for the first time that Cldn6 might be an important tight junctional component expressed by pulmonary epithelium during lung organogenesis. Furthermore, Cldn6-mediated aspects of cell differentiation may describe mechanisms of lung perturbation coincident with impaired cell junctions and abnormal membrane permeability.
KeywordsLung Claudin-6 Transcription Immunofluorescence
Lung development is a complex and coordinated process that requires cellular differentiation and interaction between respiratory epithelial cells and the surrounding mesenchymal environment . As lung development proceeds, compartmentalization is orchestrated in large part by tight junctions (TJs) between neighboring epithelial cells . Accordingly, developing pulmonary epithelium obtains a polarized conformation and it refines mechanisms that regulate ion and molecular transport between apical and basolateral compartments . TJs are protein complexes comprising several components including transmembrane proteins such as Claudins (Cldn), Occludins, and junctional adhesion molecules (JAMs) stabilized by various cytoplasmic and cytoskeletal proteins [4–6].
The Claudin (Cldn) family of proteins plays a critical role in TJs by establishing a junction complex (cellular pore) that controls extracellular ion movement at cell-cell apposition [7, 8]. The Cldn family is comprised of 27 highly conserved membrane proteins that, similar to other tetraspanins, traverse the cellular membrane four times and contain two EL loops where interdigital interactions with other Cldns occur [9, 10]. While Cldn expression is both temporally and spatially controlled, altered expression of Cldn members may contribute to the modification of intracellular permeability and molecular transport selectivity by specific epithelial cell types [8, 11].
Among Cldn proteins, Claudin-6 (Cldn6) plays a fundamental role in epithelial differentiation and permeability. Embryonic expression of Cldn6 has been identified during epidermal morphogenesis and is critical for epidermal differentiation and epithelial barrier formation . For instance, specific studies have shown that sufficient expression of Cldn6 correlated with the establishment of the permeability barrier’s integrity and function, and overexpression of Cldn6 is associated with defects in epidermal permeability . Complimentary studies employing the overexpression of Cldn6 in transgenic mice resulted in lethal epidermis-related defects including poor temperature stabilization, infection by microorganisms through the skin, and uncontrolled water loss [9, 14]. While there is a general consensus that Cldn6 participates in TJs that maintain homeostasis, abnormalities in its expression or function may also lead to tumorigenesis. For example, Cldn6 expressed by mammary epithelial cells functions as a tumor suppressor [15–17] and its downregulation has been implicated in neoplasticity and metastatic disease development [16, 18].
In the current study, we assessed the precise temporal and spatial distribution of Cldn6 in the embryonic mouse lung. Through immunofluorescent assessment, we discovered precise expression of Cldn6 and co-expression with the critical pulmonary transcription factors thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1), forkhead box A2 (FoxA2), and Gata-6 in Cldn6 expressing cells. Additional experiments that test the hypotheses that these same factors transcriptionally regulate Cldn6 were also performed. Collectively, data presented suggest controlled pulmonary Cldn6 expression and the likelihood that Cldn6 functions in distinct developmental roles. While such roles have remained largely undiscerned to this point, ongoing research may clarify important Cldn6 functions in differentiating pulmonary epithelium.
C57Bl/6 mice were housed and maintained in a conventional animal facility in accordance with institutional guidelines and approved Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) protocols. Embryonic mice were obtained from dams on the days specified following the formation of a vaginal plug that identified embryonic (E) day 0 .
Antibodies and Immunofluorescence
An anti-Cldn6 goat polyclonal antibody (C-20, Santa Cruz Biotechnologies, Santa Cruz, CA) was used at a dilution of 1:20 to identify Cldn6 expression in lung cells at different stages of lung development from E11.5 to post natal day (PN) 1. Co-localizing experiments were also conducted with the following antibodies: TTF-1 (1:100 from Seven Hills BioReagents, Cincinnati, OH), FoxA2 (1:100 from Seven Hills BioReagents), Sox2 (1:100 from Seven Hills BioReagents), and Sox9 (1:100 from Santa Cruz Biotechnologies).
Immunofluorescent staining for Cldn6, TTF-1, FoxA2, Sox2, and Sox9, were performed using standard techniques. Briefly, 5-μm paraffin sections from E11.5 to PN1 were deparaffinized and rehydrated by incubation in decreasing ethanol concentrations. Antigen retrieval was then performed as already outlined . Following antigen retrieval, sections were blocked in 5% donkey serum in PBS for 2 hours at room temperature, followed by incubation with primary antibodies at 4°C overnight. Control sections were incubated in blocking serum alone. After overnight incubation, all sections (including the controls) were washed using PBS/triton prior to the application of fluorescent-conjugated secondary antibodies for 1 hour at room temperature. Specifically, Alexa Fluor® 488 Rabbit Anti-Goat IgG was used for Cldn6 and Alexa Fluor 633 goat anti-rabbit IgG secondary antibodies were used against all other primaries (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA). For dual label immunofluorescence, secondary antibodies were initially applied to the strongest primary in order to minimize decreasing intensity resulting from subsequent washes. All sections were mounted using VectaShield containing DAPI (Vector Laboratories, Burlingame, CA).
Microarray analysis and qRT-PCR
Microarray experiments were designed and mRNA analysis was conducted as already described . In order to specifically assess Cldn6 mRNA expression throughout development, total RNA was isolated from whole mouse lungs at various time points with an Absolutely RNA RT-PCR Miniprep Kit (Stratagene, La Jolla, CA) and treated with DNase. Reverse transcription of RNA was performed using the Invitrogen Superscript III First-Strand Synthesis System (Life Technologies, Grand Island, NY) in order to obtain cDNA for PCR. The following primers were synthesized and HPLC purified by Invitrogen Life Technologies: Cldn6 (For-GCA GTC TCT TTT GCA GGC TC and Rev-CCC AAG ATT TGC AGA CCA GT) and GAPDH (For-TAT GTC GTG GAG TCT ACT GGT and Rev-GAG TTG TCA TAT TTC TCG TGG). cDNA amplification and data analysis were performed using Bio Rad iQ SYBR Green Supermix (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Hercules, CA) and a Bio Rad Single Color Real Time PCR detection system (Bio-Rad Laboratories). Primers were used at a concentration of 75 nM each in 25-μl reactions. Cycle parameters were as follows: 3 min at 95°C for initial denaturation, followed by 40 cycles composed of 1 min at 95°C, 15 sec at 55°C and 15 s at 72°C. Control wells lacking template or RT were included to identify primer-dimer products and to exclude possible contaminants.
Plasmid construction and reporter gene assays
0.5-kb, 1.0-kb and 2.0-kb of the proximal mouse Cldn6 promoter were obtained by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the Expand High Fidelity PCR System (Roche, Indianapolis, IN). The amplified Cldn6 promoter fragments were cloned and directionally ligated into the pGL4.10-basic luciferase reporter plasmid (Promega, Madison, WI) and verified by sequencing as described previously .
Functional assays of reporter gene constructs were performed by transient transfection of Beas2B and A-549 cells (American Tissue Culture Collection, ATCC, Manassas, VA) using FuGENE-6 HD reagent (Promega) . Beas2B is a transformed human bronchiolar epithelial cell line and A-549 is a human pulmonary adenocarcinoma cell line characteristic of alveolar type II cells . Transfections included 100 ng of pGL4.10-0.5 kb-Cldn6, pGL4.10-1.0 kb-Cldn6 or pGL4.10-2.0 kb-Cldn6, 100 ng pRSV-βgal in order to assess transfection efficiency, and 100 ng of expression vectors for key transcription factors including TTF1 (pCMV-TTF-1), FoxA2 (pCMV-FoxA2), or Gata-6 (pCMV-Gata-6). In the place of expression vectors, 100 ng of pcDNA control vector was added to equilibrate total DNA concentration at 300 ng. After 48 hours, plates were scraped and centrifuged, and the cleared supernatant was screened for total enzymatic β-gal expression to evaluate efficiency and luciferase activity . Luciferase activity was determined in 20 μl of extract at room temperature with 80 μl of luciferase substrates (Promega, Madison, WI) for 10 sec after a 2-sec delay in a Moonlight™ 3010 luminometer (BD Biosciences, San Jose, CA).
Reporter values are expressed as mean ± SD obtained from at least three separate experiments in each group. Data were assessed by one- or two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). When ANOVA indicated significant differences, the Student t-test was used with Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. Results presented are representative, and those with P values < 0.05 were considered significant. Messenger RNA microarray data was normalized using the Robust Multichip Average model and analyzed using three different statistical methods, including Bayesian Analysis of Time Series (BATS), Extraction of Differential Gene Expression (EDGE), and two-way ANOVA .
Cldn6 expression during mid to late prenatal lung development
Cldn6 expression coincided with TTF-1 expressing primitive pulmonary epithelium
Cldn6 was observed in Sox2- and Sox9-expressing cells
The molecular phenotypes of developing proximal and distal lung epithelial cell lineages have been associated with the differential expression of the transcription factors Sox2 and Sox9—sex-determining region Y (SRY)-box 2 and 9 . Sox genes are highly conserved throughout the animal kingdom  and Sox2 has been implicated as an early marker for proximal lung cell differentiation  whereas Sox9 has been increasingly connected with distal respiratory trajectories . Due to plausible contributions to lung cell delineation, Cldn6 immunofluorescence was used to test whether Cldn6 was expressed with Sox2 and Sox9 during early periods of lung development. Our data demonstrated that Sox2 and Sox9 were both co-expressed with Cldn6 in developing pulmonary epithelium at E12.5 (not shown) and E13.5 (Figure 4G and J).
TTF-1, FoxA2, and Gata-6 transcriptionally regulated Cldn6
Discussion and conclusions
Cldn6 expression in the developing lung
Cldns have dynamic, multimodal patterns of expression that for some family members, commence at the earliest stages of mammalian embryogenesis. An example of functional Cldn6 at the commencement of embryogenesis is observed when it cooperates with Cldn4 in the stabilization of trophectoderm located at the periphery of the blastocyst . In fact, removal of Cldn6 and Cldn4 from the trophectoderm elicited hydostatic pressure imbalances that caused an arrest in development due to a collapse of the blastocyst.
The current research demonstrated that Cldn6 is expressed by developing respiratory epithelium at very early periods of morphogenesis and that its apical and basolateral expression is precisely controlled. Our discoveries relating to the notably high midgestational expression of Cldn6 and its marked decrease as development continues illustrates the notion that Cldn6 functions in the early programming stages of lung development. This concept is supported by previous research that revealed sporadic peaks in the expression of Cldns in diverse tissues during organogenesis followed by periods of diminished expression. For example, Cldns are associated with brain ventricle morphogenesis, particularly in relation to the derivation of the blood brain barrier . Lei et al. demonstrated that cell adhesion proteins specific to the developing intestine recruit Cldn family members necessary for the initial formation of the intestinal barrier before their expression detectibly decreases . Westmoreland et al. discovered that Cldn6, and to a lesser degree Cldn4 and Cldn12, were each highly expressed in the developing pancreas that like the lung, undergoes a programmed set of branching events during morphogenesis . Their research revealed a distinctive, dynamic distribution pattern of Cldns6, 4, and 12 that related to elevated expression during pancreatic morphogenesis and altered expression during neoplastic disease . Lastly, a theme of augmented Cldn expression during organogenesis and tapered expression following organ formation was detailed in research that centered on nephrogenesis . Research revealed that nephric ducts, ureteric buds, and their derivatives robustly expressed Cldn3 during renal tubule formation and branching. Even though Cldn3 expression normally diminishes following organogenesis, the reintroduction of Cldn3 constructs caused de novo tubule branching to occur . Our observation that Cldn6 is specifically expressed by apical and basolateral areas of branching pulmonary epithelial cells suggests roles central to their development. Because distinct boundaries of Cldn expression are observed in sites that correspond to inductive interactions during embryogenesis, further research may clarify whether Cldns are required in the translation of external signals into morphogenetic outcomes.
Our discovery that Cldn6 was co-expressed with Sox2 and Sox9 suggested plausible roles in the fate determination of developing airway and respiratory epithelium. Sox2 influences proximal airway epithelial cell differentiation and it has been recently implicated in canonical Wnt-β-catenin signaling . Gain-of-function experiments showed that ectopically activated Wnt signaling negatively regulated Sox2 signaling required for bronchiolar lineage determination . While additional research that seeks to identify links between Cldn6 and Sox2 is needed, the basis for such a link has been established by studies that show Wnt signaling orchestrates Cldn-mediated branching morphogenesis and angiogenesis . While Sox9 is not essential for distal epithelial cell expansion and differentiation, it is considered a common marker for distal cell commitment. In addition to delineating such commitment, Sox9 cooperates with a host of other factors in the fine-tuning of distal cell phenotypes .
Transcriptional control of Cldn6
Early in lung development, Cldn6 was expressed in the primordial tubules at sites also expressing TTF-1 . TTF-1 regulates cytodifferentiation and formation of the respiratory epithelium . Later in development (E13.5–E15.5), TTF-1, Gata-6, and FoxA2 are co-expressed by differentiating pulmonary epithelium [47, 48]. The transcription factors TTF-1, Gata-6, and FoxA2 also significantly influence the transcription of other genes critical to lung function, including Clara Cell Secretory Protein (CCSP), and surfactant protein (SP)-A, SP-B, and SP-C. Our data revealed that Cldn6 is also a transcriptional target of TTF-1, Gata-6, and FoxA2; therefore, the functions of Cldn6 in lung organogenesis may relate to fundamental processes including cell population expansion, differentiation, and function. Furthermore, because TTF-1 regulates target gene expression in concert with other regulatory factors including CBP, PAX8, NFAT, NF-1, RAR, and AP-1, it is likely that the temporal-spatial distribution of Cldn6 expression is influenced in a highly complex fashion .
The present study revealed that Cldn6 is both temporally and spatially controlled in the developing lung and that its regulation is maintained by critical transcriptional control networks managed by TTF-1. While Cldns are central to the coordination of barrier function and signaling, many questions specific to the roles of Cldn6 in the developing lung remain. Further studies are necessary to address uncertainties such as lung-specific redundancies, possible functions of Cldns in tissues that lack TJs, and whether these proteins have a future as therapeutic targets. Conditional gain-of-function and loss-of-function experiments in animal models may prove to be the most beneficial in deciphering the impact of Cldns on organ formation and maintenance.
Drs. Jeffrey A. Whitsett and Yan Xu at the Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center kindly provided microarray data and invaluable advice. The authors also acknowledge Adam B. Robinson for assistance with quantitative RT-PCR and a team of undergraduates at Brigham Young University including Geraldine Rogers and Michael Chavarria for assistance with histology, Peter Woodward and Michael Nelson for assisting with cell culture, and Cameron Jones for invaluable animal husbandry support.
The authors declare that they have no actual or potential competing financial interests.
This work was supported by a grant from the Flight Attendant’s Medical Research Institute (FAMRI, P.R.R.) and a BYU Mentoring Environment Grant (P.R.R.).
- Burri PH: Structural aspects of postnatal lung development – alveolar formation and growth. Neonatol. 2006, 89: 313-322.Google Scholar
- Schneeberger EE, Lynch RD: The tight junction: a multifunctional complex. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2004, 286: C1213-C1228.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Balkovetz DF: Claudins at the gate: determinants of renal epithelial tight junction paracellular permeability. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2006, 290: F572-F579.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Harhaj NS, Antonetti DA: Regulation of tight junctions and loss of barrier function in pathophysiology. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2004, 36: 1206-1237.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Aijaz S, Balda MS, Matter K: Tight junctions: molecular architecture and function. Int Rev Cytol. 2006, 248: 261-298.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chiba H, Osanai M, Murata M, Kojima T, Sawada N: Transmembrane proteins of tight junctions. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2008, 1778: 588-600.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Will C, Fromm M, Muller D: Claudin tight junction proteins: novel aspects in paracellular transport. Perit Dial Int. 2008, 28: 577-584.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Findley MK, Koval M: Regulation and roles for claudin-family tight junction proteins. IUBMB Life. 2009, 61: 431-437.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Turksen K, Troy TC: Barriers built on claudins. J Cell Sci. 2004, 117: 2435-2447.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lal-Nag M, Morin PJ: The claudins. Genome Biol. 2009, 10: 235-PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Van Itallie CM, Anderson JM: Claudins and epithelial paracellular transport. Annu Rev Physiol. 2006, 68: 403-429.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Turksen K, Troy TC: Claudin-6: a novel tight junction molecule is developmentally regulated in mouse embryonic epithelium. Dev Dyn. 2001, 222: 292-300.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Arabzadeh A, Troy T-C, Turksen K: Role of the Cldn6 cytoplasmic tail domain in membrane targeting and epidermal differentiation in vivo. Mol Cell Biol. 2006, 26: 5876-5887.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Turksen K, Troy TC: Permeability barrier dysfunction in transgenic mice overexpressing claudin 6. Development. 2002, 129: 1775-1784.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Quan C, Lu SJ: Identification of genes preferentially expressed in mammary epithelial cells of Copenhagen rat using subtractive hybridization and microarrays. Carcinogenesis. 2003, 24: 1593-1599.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Morin PJ: Claudin proteins in human cancer: promising new targets for diagnosis and therapy. Cancer Res. 2005, 65: 9603-9606.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kominsky SL: Claudins: emerging targets for cancer therapy. Exp Rev Mol Med. 2006, 8: 1-11.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wu Q, Liu Y, Ren Y, Xu X, Yu L, Li Y, Quan C: Tight junction protein, claudin-6, downregulates the malignant phenotype of breast carcinoma. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2010, 19: 186-194.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Reynolds P, Mucenski M, Whitestt JA: Thyroid transcription factor (TTF)-1 regulates the expression of Midkine (MK) during lung morphogenesis. Dev Dyn. 2003, 227: 227-237.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Reynolds PR, Mucenski ML, LeCras TD, Nichols WC, Whitsett JA: Midkine (MK) induces myocardin during hypoxia and causes pulmonary vascular remodeling. J Biol Chem. 2004, 279 (35): 37124-37132.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Xu Y, Wang Y, Besnard V, Ikegami M, Wert SE, Heffner C, Murray SA, Donahue LR, Whitsett JA: Transcriptional programs controlling perinatal lung maturation. PLoS One. 2012, 7 (8): e37046-PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Reynolds PR, Allison C, Willnauer C: TTF-1 regulates alpha5 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits in proximal and distal lung epithelium. Respir Res. 2010, 11: 175-PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Porter JL, Bukey BR, Geyer AJ, Willnauer CP, Reynolds PR: Immunohistochemical detection and regulation of α5 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits by FoxA2 during mouse lung organogenesis. Respir Res. 2011, 12: 82-PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sporty JL, Horalkova L, Ehrhardt C: In vitro cell culture models for the assessment of pulmonary drug disposition. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008, 4: 333-345.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Reynolds PR, Hoidal JR: Temporal-spatial expression and transcriptional regulation of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor by thyroid transcription factor-1 and early growth response factor-1 during murine lung development. J Biol Chem. 2005, 280: 32548-32554.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Guazzi S, Prince M, De Felice M, Damante G, Mattei MG, Di Lauro R: Thyroid nuclear factor 1 (TTF-1) contains a homeodomain and displays a novel DNA binding specificity. EMBO J. 1990, 9 (11): 3631-3639.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Bohinski RJ, Di Lauro R, Whitsett JA: The lung-specific surfactant protein B gene promoter is a target for thyroid transcription factor 1 and hepatocyte nuclear factor 3, indicating common factors for organ-specific gene expression along the foregut axis. Mol Cell Biol. 1994, 14 (9): 5671-5681.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Costa RH, Kalinichenko VV, Lim L: Transcription factors in mouse lung development and function. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2001, 280: L823-L838.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ang SL, Rossant J: HNF-3 beta is essential for node and notochord formation in mouse development. Cell. 1994, 78: 561-574.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Besnard V, Wert SE, Hull WM, Whitsett JA: Immunohistochemical localization of Foxa1 and Foxa2 in mouse embryos and adult tissues. Gene Expr Patterns. 2004, 5: 193-208.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hashimoto S, Chen H, Que J, Brockway BL, Drake JA, Snyder JC, Randell SH, Stripp BR: B-catenin-SOX2 signaling regulates the fate of developing airway epithelium. J Cell Sci. 2011, 125: 932-942.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bowles J, Schepers G, Koopman P: Phylogeny of the SOX family of developmental transcription factors based on sequence and structural indicators. Dev Biol. 2000, 227: 239-255.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Okubo T, Knoepfler PS, Eisenman RN, Hogan BL: Nmyc plays an essential role during lung development as a dosage-sensitive regulator of progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation. Development. 2005, 132: 1363-1374.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Perl AK, Kist R, Shan Z, Scherer G, Whitsett JA: Normal lung development and function after Sox9 inactivation in the respiratory epithelium. Genesis. 2005, 41: 23-32.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Morrisey EE, Tang Z, Sigrist K, Lu MM, Jiang F, Ip HS, Parmacek MS: GATA6 regulates HNF4 and is required for differentiation of visceral endoderm in the mouse embryo. Genes Dev. 1998, 12: 3579-3590.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Liu C, Morrisey EE, Whitsett JA: GATA-6 is required for maturation of the lung in late gestation. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2002, 283: L468-L475.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Moriwaki K, Tsukita S, Feruse M: Tight junctions containing claudins 4 and 6 are essential for blastocyst formation in preimplantation mouse embryos. Dev Biol. 2007, 312: 509-522.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zhang J, Liss M, Wolburg H, Blasig IE, Abdelilah-Seyfried S: Involvement of claudins in zebrafish brain ventricle morphogenesis. Ann NY Acad Sci. 2012, 1257: 193-198.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lei Z, Maeda T, Tamura A, Nakahama T, Yamazaki Y, Shiratori H, Yashiro K, Tsukita A, Hamada H: EpCAM contributes to formation of functional tight junction in the intestinal epithelium by recruiting claudin proteins. Dev Biol. 2012, 371 (2): 136-145.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Westmoreland JJ, Drosos Y, Kelly J, Ye J, Means AL, Washington MK, Sosa-Pineda B: Dynamic distribution of claudin proteins in pancreatic epithelia undergoing morphogenesis or neoplastic transformation. Dev Dyn. 2012, 241 (3): 583-594.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Haddad N, El Andalousi J, Khairaallah H, Yu M, Ryan AK, Gupta IR: The tight junction protein claudin-3 shows conserved expression in the nephric duct and ureteric bud and promotes tubulogenesis in vitro. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2011, 310 (5): F1057-F1065.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Volckaert T, Campbell A, Dill E, Li C, Minoo P, De Langhe S: Localized Fgf10 expression is not required for lung branching morphogenesis but prevents differentiation of epithelial progenitors. Development. 2013, 140 (18): 3731-3742.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lu J, Zhang S, Nakano H, Simmons DG, Wang S, Kong S, Wang Q, Shen L, Tu Z, Wang W, Wang B, Wang H, Wang Y, van Es JH, Clevers H, Leone G, Cross JC, Wang H: A positive feedback loop involving Gcm1 and Fzd5 directs chorionic branching morphogenesis in the placenta. PLoS Biol. 2013, 11 (4): e1001536-PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Maeda Y, Dave V, Whitsett JA: Transcriptional control of lung morphogenesis. Physiol Rev. 2007, 87: 219-244.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Perl AKT, Whitsett JA: Molecular mechanisms controlling lung morphogenesis. Clin Genet. 1999, 56: 14-27.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kimura S, Hara Y, Pineau T, Fernandez-Salguero P, Fox CH, Ward JM, Gonzales FJ: The T/EBP null mouse: thyroid specific enhancer-binding protein is essential for the organogenesis of the thyroid, lung, ventral forebrain and pituitary. Genes Dev. 1996, 10: 60-69.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zhou L, Lim L, Costa RH, Whitsett JA: Thyroid transcription factor-1 hepatocyte nuclear factor-3beta, surfactant protein B, C, and Clara cell secretory protein in developing mouse lung. J Histochem Cytochem. 1996, 44: 1183-1193.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Keijzer R, van Tuyl M, Meijers C, Post M, Tibboel D, Grosveld F, Koutsourakis M: The transcription factor Gata-6 is essential for branching morphogenesis and epithelial cell differentiation during fetal pulmonary development. Development. 2001, 128: 503-511.PubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.