- Open Access
The counter regulatory response induced by CpG oligonucleotides prevents bleomycin induced pneumopathy
© Kinjo et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2012
- Received: 10 February 2012
- Accepted: 18 June 2012
- Published: 18 June 2012
Bleomycin (BLM) induces life-threatening pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis in 20% of patients, limiting its use as a chemotherapeutic agent. Oligonucleotides expressing immunostimulatory CpG motifs (CpG ODN) stimulate cells that express Toll-like receptor 9 to initiate an inflammatory response. This short-lived inflammation is physiologically suppressed by a counter-regulatory process that peaks five days later. Using a murine model of BLM-induced lung injury, the effect of CpG ODN treatment on pulmonary inflammation, fibrosis and mortality was examined. Administering CpG ODN 5 days before BLM (so that the peak of the counter-regulatory process induced by CpG ODN coincided with BLM delivery) resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in pulmonary toxicity (p < 0.005). Delaying the initiation of therapy until the day of or after BLM administration worsened the inflammatory process, consistent with the counter-regulatory process rather than initial pro-inflammatory response being critical to CpG induced protection. The protection afforded by CpG ODN correlated with reduced leukocyte accumulation and inflammatory cytokine/chemokine production in the lungs. These changes were associated with the increased production of IL-10, a critical element of the counter-regulatory process triggered by CpG ODN, and the concomitant down-regulation of BLM-induced IL-17A and TGF-β1 (which promote pulmonary toxicity). This work represents the first example of the physiologic counter-regulation of TLR induced immune activation being harnessed to block an unrelated inflammatory response.
- CpG oligonucleotide
Bleomycin is effective in the chemotherapy of various cancers including squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck, cervix, and esophagus, germ cell tumors and both Hodgkins and non-Hodgkins lymphoma [1–3]. BLM exerts its anti-tumor activity by generating oxygen and free radicals via the reduction of Fe (II) to Fe (III). These free radicals cause DNA strand breakage and cell death [4–6]. BLM is metabolized/inactivated under physiologic conditions by bleomycin hydrolase. As there is a paucity of this enzyme in the lungs, they are unusually susceptible to BLM-induced toxicity. While several pulmonary syndromes associated with BLM administration have been described, the most common dose-limiting side effect of this therapy is interstitial pneumonitis progressing to fibrosis [7–9]. Approximately 20% of patients treated with BLM develop pneumonitis, with a mortality that approaches 20% [7, 10–12].
The lung cells damaged by BLM release uric acid and other factors that trigger alveolar macrophages to secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines (including IL-1β, IL-6, KC and MIP-2). These recruit additional inflammatory cells to the lung that contribute to the development of bleomycin-induced pneumonitis (BIP) and pulmonary fibrosis [13–15]. Recent studies indicate that IL-17A, TGF-β, and IL-10 are critical regulators of BLM-induced pneumopathy. IL-17A and TGF-β synergistically promote the development of BIP whereas IL-10 down-regulates IL-17A and thus abrogates disease . The importance of these factors was confirmed in animal models showing that BLM-induced lung injury was reduced in mice in which IL-17A or its receptor were deleted/blocked, while IL-10 KO mice developed more severe BLM-induced lung inflammation and fibrosis [16–19].
The unmethylated CpG motifs present in bacterial DNA stimulate cells that express Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9). This interaction triggers a short-lived innate immune response characterized by the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines [20–22]. The immune stimulation induced by bacterial DNA is duplicated by synthetic oligonucleotides expressing CpG motifs (CpG ODN).
Microarray identification of the genes triggered by CpG ODN showed that the inflammatory response peaked on day 1, but that >96% of these genes were suppressed by a counter-regulatory process that peaked on day 5 [23, 24]. IL-10 was identified as a key mediator of this down-regulatory process, based on both bioinformatic and functional studies of CpG-induced inflammation [23, 25, 26]. As noted above, IL-10 also reduces BLM-induced pulmonary inflammation by down-regulating IL-17A production. This combination of findings raised the possibility that the counter-regulatory process induced by CpG ODN might be harnessed to limit BLM-dependent pneumonitis. A murine model was used to examine the effect of CpG ODN on BLM-induced morbidity and mortality, and analyze the impact of this treatment on the production and regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines.
Phosphorothioate CpG ODN 1555 (sequence: GCTAGACGTTAGCGT) and control ODN 1612 (sequence: GCTAGAGCTTAGGCT) were synthesized at the Center for Biologics Core Facility. ODNs were administered by intraperitoneal injection in all experiments. All ODNs were free of endotoxin and protein contamination.
BLM-induced lung injury model
Female C57BL/6 mice were studied at 7-12 wk of age. BLM (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) in 50 μl of PBS was instilled endotracheally into the lungs of anesthetized mice using a 24-gauge catheter. All experiments were approved by the NCI Animal Care and Use Committee, and mice were monitored daily.
Collection of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and cells
The trachea was cannulated with a 22-gauge catheter and BAL fluid collected as previously described . BAL was centrifuged and supernatants analyzed as described below. Cell pellets were re-suspended and analyzed histologically after cytocentrifugation and Diff-Quick staining (Dade Behring, Deerfield, IL).
In vitro stimulation of LN and BAL cells
A single cell suspension prepared from the draining thoracic LN and BAL was plated at 0.5 - 4 x 105 cells per well in 96-well microtiter plates and stimulated with 50 ng/ml PMA and 1 μg/ml Ionomycin (Sigma-Aldrich) for 4 hr in RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with 5% FCS, 50 U/ml penicillin and 50 μg/ml streptomycin.
KC, MIP-2, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-17A levels in BAL and culture supernatants were measured by ELISA, as previously described . TGF-β1 was measured by ELISA (R&D Systems).
Evaluation of lung fibrosis
Total soluble lung collagen was detected using the Sircol collagen assay (Biocolor, Northern Ireland, UK). Lung tissue was fixed and stained with Masson’s Trichrome. The severity of lung fibrosis were evaluated by a pathologist blinded to the origin of each sample.
RNA isolation and quantitative RT-PCR
RNA was extracted from homogenized lung using the RNeasy Mini Kit (QIAGEN, Valencia, CA) and cDNA was generated using the Reverse Transcription Kit (QIAGEN). The cDNA from each sample was used for a quantitative RT-PCR based on TaqMan chemistry using the Step One Plus real-time PCR System (Applied Biosystems). The reaction mixture contained Taqman Gene Expression Master Mix with Taqman probes for the IL-10 gene with FAM dye (Mm00439616m1) and for the GAPDH gene with VIC dye (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA).
Differences between groups were assessed using a one-way ANOVA and differences in survival rate were determined using the Kaplan-Meier log-rank test. P values ≤ 0.05 were considered significant for all analyses.
Mice pre-treated with CpG ODN survive BLM-induced lung injury
Pre-treatment with CpG ODN reduces BLM-induced pulmonary inflammation
Previous studies showed that uric acid released by BLM-damaged lung cells trigger alveolar macrophages via the Nalp3 inflammasome signaling cascade . These macrophages produce chemokines (including KC, MIP-2) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (including IL-6 and IL-1β) that recruit other inflammatory cells to the lung, culminating in pulmonary fibrosis [13–15].
Pre-treatment with CpG ODN inhibits lung fibrosis
Histologic analysis of lung tissue from these animals confirmed that BLM caused the development of patchy, multi-focal inflammation and markedly increased collagen deposition (Figure 4B). These histologic changes were unaffected by the administration of control ODN or PBS, whereas CpG ODN treatment resulted in significantly less severe inflammatory changes and lower levels of collagen deposition (Figure 4B, C).
Effect of CpG ODN on IL-10, IL-17 and TGF-β expression
CpG ODN activate the innate immune system by stimulating cells expressing TLR9. The resultant immune response is short lived, with the up-regulation of mRNA encoding pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines generally peaking between 3 - 9 hr. This rapid but short term activity is supported by evidence that intraperitoneal injection of CpG ODN induces pulmonary inflammation lasting from 1 - 6 hr such that no evidence of inflammation is detectable at 5 days . Recent studies indicate that this early pro-inflammatory response is followed by a prolonged period of gene suppression mediated by a counter-regulatory process . Microarray studies of spleen cells showed that the signaling cascade triggered by CpG ODN resulted in the up-regulation of genes including IL-10 whose product suppressed the initial immune response. This down-regulation occurred under physiological conditions, was highly reproducible, and peaked 5 days after CpG administration . Extending those findings, data presented in Figure 6 demonstrates that expression of the IL-10 gene in the lungs is also increased 5 days after CpG administration (Figure 6). The current work is the first to examine whether this counter-regulatory process can be harnessed to prevent the pathological inflammation triggered by a different agent; in this case, the lung injury induced by BLM.
Bleomycin is an important chemotherapeutic agent [1–3]. Unfortunately, the lungs are deficient in the enzyme that detoxifies BLM, and dose-limiting pulmonary toxicity arises in nearly 20% of patients [7, 10–12]. BLM generates DNA-cleaving free radicals that injure lung cells, leading to the release factors that attract and stimulate alveolar macrophages to produce a variety of cytokines and chemokines, key among which are IL-1β, IL-6, KC and MIP-2. These factors recruit and activate additional inflammatory cells, culminating in the development of pulmonary fibrosis [13, 14].
CpG ODN have historically been used to bolster immune reactivity in animals with established disease (including infection, allergy and cancer). In the context of BLM induced fibrosis, Luckhardt et al. reported that CpG treatment 14 days after intrathecal injection of BLM reduced lung fibrosis . Although the precise mechanism was not shown, they suggested that the enhancement of IFN-β production by CpG ODN might be associated with the reduction of fibrosis. IL-12, which is a representative pro-inflammatory cytokine induced by CpG ODN, was also reported to inhibit BLM induced lung fibrosis. Keane et al. reported that 16 consecutive days of IL-12 administration reduced BLM-induced lung fibrosis and suggested that this protective effect was mediated via IFN-γ . In all previous studies, CpG or IL-12 was administered after BLM and the effect of the resultant Th1 response on lung fibrosis was monitored. There have been several studies examing the effect of administering CpG ODN prior to the development of disease. In an animal model of stroke, administering CpG ODN 3 days before the onset of brain ischemia significantly reduced infarct size and this neuroprotective effect was associated with CpG-induced TNF-α and type I interferon production [32, 33]. In a model of LPS-induced lung inflammation, CpG ODN administered 1 - 12 hours before LPS inhibited pulmonary injury in an IL-12 dependent manner . Similarly, CpG ODN delivered shortly before pathogen challenge elicited an inflammatory response that improved host resistance to infection [35, 36]. Yet the activity of CpG ODN in these systems was uniformly dependent on the early induction of a pro-inflammatory response. The current work is the first to examine whether the counter-regulatory response peaking 5 days after CpG administration might be harnessed to therapeutic advantage.
Results show that mice pre-treated with CpG ODN are resistant to the pulmonary damage induced by BLM instillation. CpG dependent protection was maximal in mice treated with 200 μg of CpG ODN 5 days prior to BLM instillation (Figure 1). That treatment regime completely prevented the mortality and significantly reduced the acute and chronic pulmonary morbidity elicited by BLM. It also significantly reduced other measures of pulmonary inflammation, including collagen deposition, leukocyte accumulation, and the accumulation of IL-1β, IL-6, KC and MIP-2 in BAL fluid (Figures 2-4). Lowering the dose of CpG ODN also reduced the protection achieved, while substituting control ODN resulted in a complete loss of protection (Figure 1). When administered only 3 days before BLM (the time at which the counter-regulatory response first arose), CpG treatment was less effective, leading to only a 26% improvement in survival (p < 0.05, data not shown). Delaying the initiation of therapy until the day of or after BLM administration worsened the inflammatory process (Figure 1C). These outcomes were not surprising, as CpG ODN have an immediate but short lasting inflammatory effect on the lungs. We conclude that CpG ODN must be administered several days prior to BLM instillation to harness the counter-regulatory process and prevent pulmonary inflammation.
Studies were conducted to clarify the mechanism by which CpG ODN blocked BLM-dependent pulmonary inflammation. Previous work showed that the concentration of IL-17A and TGF-β in BAL rose significantly after the instillation of BLM (Figure 5 and [16–18]), and that these factors supported the development of BIP by promoting the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines (including IL-1β, IL-6, KC and MIP-2). Studies using neutralizing Abs and KO mice showed that the elimination of IL-17A and/or TGF-β led to a significant reduction in BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis [16–18, 37]. Other reports showed that IL-10 down-regulated the production of both IL-17A and TGF-β  and that IL-10 was a key mediator of the counter-regulatory process responsible for suppressing CpG induced immune activation [23, 25, 26].
Consistent with those findings, IL-10 mRNA levels rose significantly while the levels of IL-17A and TGF-β1 fell significantly in the BAL of mice pre-treated with CpG DNA (Figures 5, 6). Control ODN had no such effect, establishing the specificity of this effect. However when the activity of IL-10 was blocked with anti-IL-10R Abs, no reduction in CpG mediated protection was observed (Figure 7). These findings are consistent with the interpretation that multiple elements of the counter-regulatory process triggered by CpG ODN contribute to the reduction in BLM-induced pulmonary inflammation, such that eliminating a single component (such as IL-10) does not undermine the protective response.
While failing to identify the precise factors responsible, current results establish the principle that the counter-regulatory process responsible for suppressing TLR9-induced gene activation can be harnessed to block the inflammation arising from an unrelated stimulus. As pulmonary inflammation represents the dose-limiting toxicity of many chemotherapeutic agents, the protective activity of CpG pre-treatment identified herein may be of widespread utility. In this context, since chemotherapy schedules are typically established weeks in advance, the administration of CpG ODN prior to BLM (or other agents) could be readily incorporated into these therapeutic protocols.
This research was supported by the Intramural Research Program of the NIH, NCI, Center for Cancer Research and the JSPS Research Fellowship for Japanese Biomedical and Behavioral Researchers at NIH. The content of this publication does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Department of Health and Human Services, nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the United States government. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
- Moroni M, Giannetta L, Gelosa G, Secondino S, Chillura G, Colombo E, Siena S: Second-line chemotherapy with bleomycin, methotrexate, and vinorelbine (BMV) for patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head, neck and esophagus (SCC-HN&E) pretreated with a cisplatin-containing regimen: a phase II study. J Chemother. 2003, 15 (4): 394-399.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Canellos GP: Lymphoma: present and future challenges. Semin Hematol. 2004, 41 (4 Suppl 7): 26-31.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Rimmer Y, Chester J, Joffe J, Stark D, Shamash J, Powles T, White J, Wason J, Parashar D, Armstrong G, Mazhar D, Williams MV: Accelerated BEP: a phase I trial of dose-dense BEP for intermediate and poor prognosis metastatic germ cell tumour. Br J Cancer. 2011, 105 (6): 766-772. 10.1038/bjc.2011.309.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sausville EA, Stein RW, Peisach J, Horwitz SB: Properties and products of the degradation of DNA by bleomycin and iron(II). Biochemistry. 1978, 17 (14): 2746-2754. 10.1021/bi00607a008.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sausville EA, Peisach J, Horwitz SB: Effect of chelating agents and metal ions on the degradation of DNA by bleomycin. Biochemistry. 1978, 17 (14): 2740-2746. 10.1021/bi00607a007.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Burger RM, Peisach J, Horwitz SB: Activated bleomycin. A transient complex of drug, iron, and oxygen that degrades DNA. J Biol Chem. 1981, 256 (22): 11636-11644.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sleijfer S: Bleomycin-induced pneumonitis. Chest. 2001, 120 (2): 617-624. 10.1378/chest.120.2.617.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Santrach PJ, Askin FB, Wells RJ, Azizkhan RG, Merten DF: Nodular form of bleomycin-related pulmonary injury in patients with osteogenic sarcoma. Cancer. 1989, 64 (4): 806-811. 10.1002/1097-0142(19890815)64:4<806::AID-CNCR2820640407>3.0.CO;2-X.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Holoye PY, Luna MA, MacKay B, Bedrossian CW: Bleomycin hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Ann Intern Med. 1978, 88 (1): 47-49.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Carnevale-Schianca F, Gallo S, Rota-Scalabrini D, Sangiolo D, Fizzotti M, Caravelli D, Capaldi A, Anselmetti G, Palesandro E, D'Ambrosio L, Coha V, Obert R, Aglietta M, Grignani G: Complete resolution of life-threatening bleomycin-induced pneumonitis after treatment with imatinib mesylate in a patient with Hodgkin's lymphoma: hope for severe chemotherapy-induced toxicity?. J Clin Oncol. 2011, 29 (24): e691-e693. 10.1200/JCO.2011.35.6733.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Martin WG, Ristow KM, Habermann TM, Colgan JP, Witzig TE, Ansell SM: Bleomycin pulmonary toxicity has a negative impact on the outcome of patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma. J Clin Oncol. 2005, 23 (30): 7614-7620. 10.1200/JCO.2005.02.7243.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lewis BM, Izbicki R: Routine pulmonary function tests during bleomycin therapy. Tests may be ineffective and potentially misleading. J Am Med Assoc. 1980, 243 (4): 347-351. 10.1001/jama.1980.03300300025019.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Gasse P, Mary C, Guenon I, Noulin N, Charron S, Schnyder-Candrian S, Schnyder B, Akira S, Quesniaux VF, Lagente V, Ryffel B, Couillin I: IL-1R1/MyD88 signaling and the inflammasome are essential in pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis in mice. J Clin Invest. 2007, 117 (12): 3786-3799.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Gasse P, Riteau N, Charron S, Girre S, Fick L, Petrilli V, Tschopp J, Lagente V, Quesniaux VF, Ryffel B, Couillin I: Uric acid is a danger signal activating NALP3 inflammasome in lung injury inflammation and fibrosis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2009, 179 (10): 903-913. 10.1164/rccm.200808-1274OC.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wynn TA: Integrating mechanisms of pulmonary fibrosis. J Exp Med. 2011, 208 (7): 1339-1350. 10.1084/jem.20110551.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wilson MS, Madala SK, Ramalingam TR, Gochuico BR, Rosas IO, Cheever AW, Wynn TA: Bleomycin and IL-1beta-mediated pulmonary fibrosis is IL-17A dependent. J Exp Med. 2010, 207 (3): 535-552. 10.1084/jem.20092121.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Gasse P, Riteau N, Vacher R, Michel ML, Fautrel A, Di PF, Fick L, Charron S, Lagente V, Eberl G, Le BM, Quesniaux VF, Huaux F, Leite-de-Moraes M, Ryffel B, Couillin I: IL-1 and IL-23 mediate early IL-17A production in pulmonary inflammation leading to late fibrosis. PLoS One. 2011, 6 (8): e23185-10.1371/journal.pone.0023185.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Mi S, Li Z, Yang HZ, Liu H, Wang JP, Ma YG, Wang XX, Liu HZ, Sun W, Hu ZW: Blocking IL-17A promotes the resolution of pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis via TGF-beta1-dependent and -independent mechanisms. J Immunol. 2011, 187 (6): 3003-3014. 10.4049/jimmunol.1004081.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kradin RL, Sakamoto H, Jain F, Zhao LH, Hymowitz G, Preffer F: IL-10 inhibits inflammation but does not affect fibrosis in the pulmonary response to bleomycin. Exp Mol Pathol. 2004, 76 (3): 205-211. 10.1016/j.yexmp.2003.12.010.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Krieg AM, Yi A, Matson S, Waldschmidt TJ, Bishop GA, Teasdale R, Koretzky GA, Klinman DM: CpG motifs in bacterial DNA trigger direct B-cell activation. Nature. 1995, 374: 546-548. 10.1038/374546a0.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hemmi H, Takeuchi O, Kawai T, Sato S, Sanjo H, Matsumoto M, Hoshino K, Wagner H, Takeda K, Akira S: A Toll-like receptor recognizes bacterial DNA. Nature. 2000, 408: 740-745. 10.1038/35047123.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Klinman DM: Immunotherapeutic uses of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides. Nat Rev Immunol. 2004, 4 (4): 249-258. 10.1038/nri1329.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Klaschik S, Tross D, Klinman DM: Inductive and suppressive networks regulate TLR9-dependent gene expression in vivo. J Leukocyte Biol. 2009, 85 (5): 788-795. 10.1189/jlb.1008671.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Klaschik S, Tross D, Shirota H, Klinman DM: Short- and long-term changes in gene expression mediated by the activation of TLR9. Mol Immunol. 2010, 47 (6): 1317-1324. 10.1016/j.molimm.2009.11.014.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yi AK, Yoon JG, Yeo SJ, Hong SC, English BK, Krieg AM: Role of mitogen-activated protein kinases in CpG DNA-mediated IL-10 and IL-12 production: central role of extracellular signal-regulated kinase in the negative feedback loop of the CpG DNA-mediated Th1 response. J Immunol. 2002, 168 (9): 4711-4720.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Crabtree TD, Jin L, Raymond DP, Pelletier SJ, Houlgrave CW, Gleason TG, Pruett TL, Sawyer RG: Preexposure of murine macrophages to CpG oligonucleotide results in a biphasic tumor necrosis factor alpha response to subsequent lipopolysaccharide challenge. Infect Immun. 2001, 69 (4): 2123-2129. 10.1128/IAI.69.4.2123-2129.2001.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sur S, Wild JS, Choudhury BK, Alam R, Sur N, Klinman DM: Long-term prevention of allergic lung inflammation in a mouse model of asthma by CpG oligodeoxynucleotides. J Immunol. 1999, 162: 6284-62912.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Klinman DM, Yi A, Beaucage SL, Conover J, Krieg AM: CpG motifs present in bacterial DNA rapidly induce lymphocytes to secrete IL-6, IL-12 and IFNg. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1996, 93: 2879-2883. 10.1073/pnas.93.7.2879.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Knuefermann P, Baumgarten G, Koch A, Schwederski M, Velten M, Ehrentraut H, Mersmann J, Meyer R, Hoeft A, Zacharowski K, Grohe C: CpG oligonucleotide activates Toll-like receptor 9 and causes lung inflammation in vivo. Respir Res. 2007, 8: 72-10.1186/1465-9921-8-72.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Luckhardt TR, Coomes SM, Trujillo G, Stoolman JS, Vannella KM, Bhan U, Wilke CA, Moore TA, Toews GB, Hogaboam C, Moore BB: TLR9-induced interferon beta is associated with protection from gammaherpesvirus-induced exacerbation of lung fibrosis. Fibrogenesis Tissue Repair. 2011, 4: 18-10.1186/1755-1536-4-18.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Keane MP, Belperio JA, Burdick MD, Strieter RM: IL-12 attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2001, 281 (1): L92-L97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Stevens SL, Ciesielski TM, Marsh BJ, Yang T, Homen DS, Boule JL, Lessov NS, Simon RP, Stenzel-Poore MP: Toll-like receptor 9: a new target of ischemic preconditioning in the brain. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2008, 28 (5): 1040-1047. 10.1038/sj.jcbfm.9600606.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Marsh BJ, Stevens SL, Hunter B, Stenzel-Poore MP: Inflammation and the emerging role of the toll-like receptor system in acute brain ischemia. Stroke. 2009, 40 (3 Suppl): S34-S37.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Schwartz DA, Wohlford-Lenane CL, Quinn TJ, Krieg AM: Bacterial DNA or oligonucleotides containing unmethylated CpG motifs can minimize lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in the lower respiratory tract through an IL-12-dependent pathway. J Immunol. 1999, 163 (1): 224-231.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Klinman DM: Use of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides as immunoprotective agents. Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2004, 4 (6): 937-946. 10.1517/14712522.214.171.1247.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Krieg AM: Antiinfective applications of toll-like receptor 9 agonists. Proc Am Thorac Soc. 2007, 4 (3): 289-294. 10.1513/pats.200701-021AW.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Giri SN, Hyde DM, Hollinger MA: Effect of antibody to transforming growth factor beta on bleomycin induced accumulation of lung collagen in mice. Thorax. 1993, 48 (10): 959-966. 10.1136/thx.48.10.959.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.