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  1. As lung transplantation (LTx) is becoming a standard treatment for end-stage lung disease, the use of bridging with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is increasing. We examined the clinical impact of ...

    Authors: Nam Eun Kim, Ala Woo, Song Yee Kim, Ah Young Leem, Youngmok Park, Se Hyun Kwak, Seung Hyun Yong, Kyungsoo Chung, Moo Suk Park, Young Sam Kim, Ha Eun Kim, Jin Gu Lee, Hyo Chae Paik and Su Hwan Lee

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:306

    Content type: Research

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  2. The intention of this short primer is to raise your appetite for proper quantitative assessment of lung micro-structure. The method of choice for obtaining such data is stereology. Rooted in stochastic geometr...

    Authors: Matthias Ochs and Julia Schipke

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:305

    Content type: Review

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  3. The mucociliary clearance system driven by beating cilia protects the airways from inhaled microbes and particles. Large particles are cleared by mucus bundles made in submucosal glands by parallel linear poly...

    Authors: Anna Ermund, Lauren N. Meiss, Brendan Dolan, Florian Jaudas, Lars Ewaldsson, Andrea Bähr, Nikolai Klymiuk and Gunnar C. Hansson

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:303

    Content type: Research

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  4. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. With the growing number of targeted therapies and the introduction of immuno-oncology (IO), personalized medicine has become standard of care in pati...

    Authors: Guus R. M. van den Heuvel, Leonie I. Kroeze, Marjolijn J. L. Ligtenberg, Katrien Grünberg, Erik A. M. Jansen, Daniel von Rhein, Richarda M. de Voer and Michel M. van den Heuvel

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:302

    Content type: Research

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  5. The clinical value of blood eosinophils and their stability in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains controversial. There are limited studies on association between the stability of blood eosino...

    Authors: Yanan Cui, Wenye Zhang, Yiming Ma, Zijie Zhan and Yan Chen

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:301

    Content type: Research

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  6. Previous studies have determined the epigenetic association between DNA methylation and pulmonary function among various ethnics, whereas this association is largely unknown in Chinese adults. Thus, we aimed t...

    Authors: Tong Wang, Weijing Wang, Weilong Li, Haiping Duan, Chunsheng Xu, Xiaocao Tian and Dongfeng Zhang

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:300

    Content type: Research

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  7. This study assessed the impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on overall hospitalizations for pulmonary embolism (PE) in France in comparison with previous years, and by COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 status.

    Authors: Pierre Tankere, Jonathan Cottenet, Pascale Tubert-Bitter, Anne-Sophie Mariet, Guillaume Beltramo, Jacques Cadranel, Lionel Piroth, Philippe Bonniaud and Catherine Quantin

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:298

    Content type: Research

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  8. Despite the high disease burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and risk of acute COPD exacerbation, few COPD biomarkers are available. As developmental endothelial locus-1 (DEL-1) has been pro...

    Authors: Dong-Hyun Joo, Kyoung-Hee Lee, Chang-Hoon Lee, Jisu Woo, Jiyeon Kim, Seoung Ju Park, Chin Kook Rhee, Won-Yeon Lee, Dongil Park, Jae Seung Lee, Ki-Suck Jung, Kwang Ha Yoo and Chul-Gyu Yoo

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:297

    Content type: Research

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  9. Cough hypersensitivity is a major characteristic feature associated with several types of cough, including chronic cough, but its underlying mechanisms remain to be fully understood. Inflammatory mediators, su...

    Authors: Al-Shaimaa A. Al-Kandery, Muddanna S. Rao and Ahmed Z. El-Hashim

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:296

    Content type: Research

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  10. α1-Antitrypsin (AAT) is an acute phase glycoprotein, a multifunctional protein with proteinase inhibitory, anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective properties. Both preclinical and clinical experiences show that t...

    Authors: Tomoyuki Nakagiri, Sabine Wrenger, Kokilavani Sivaraman, Fabio Ius, Tobias Goecke, Patrick Zardo, Veronika Grau, Tobias Welte, Axel Haverich, Ann-Kathrin Knöfel and Sabina Janciauskiene

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:295

    Content type: Research

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  11. Little attention has been paid to chest high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) patients so far, while a couple of small studies suggested that ...

    Authors: Aneta Kacprzak, Barbara Burakowska, Marcin Kurzyna, Anna Fijałkowska, Michał Florczyk, Maria Wieteska-Miłek, Szymon Darocha, Adam Torbicki and Monika Szturmowicz

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:293

    Content type: Research

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  12. Pursed-lips breathing (PLB) is a technique to attenuate small airway collapse by regulating the expiratory flow. During mandatory ventilation, flow-controlled expiration (FLEX), which mimics the expiratory flo...

    Authors: Johannes Schmidt, Anna Martin, Christin Wenzel, Jonas Weber, Steffen Wirth and Stefan Schumann

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:292

    Content type: Research

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  13. Cytochrome P450 epoxygenase 2J2 (CYP2J2) metabolizes arachidonic acid to epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), which exert anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, pro-proliferative, and antioxidant effects on the cardi...

    Authors: Yun Ding, Pengjie Tu, Yiyong Chen, Yangyun Huang, Xiaojie Pan and Wenshu Chen

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:291

    Content type: Research

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  14. Pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (PPFE) is characterised by predominant upper lobe pleural and subpleural lung parenchymal fibrosis. Radiological PPFE-like lesion has been associated with various types of inte...

    Authors: Tomoyuki Fujisawa, Yasuoki Horiike, Ryoko Egashira, Hiromitsu Sumikawa, Tae Iwasawa, Shoichiro Matsushita, Hiroaki Sugiura, Kensuke Kataoka, Mikiko Hashisako, Hideki Yasui, Hironao Hozumi, Masato Karayama, Yuzo Suzuki, Kazuki Furuhashi, Noriyuki Enomoto, Yutaro Nakamura…

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:290

    Content type: Research

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  15. For children and adults, the standard treatment for obstructive sleep apnea is the delivery of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Though effective, CPAP masks can be uncomfortable to patients, contrib...

    Authors: Kelvin Duong, Michelle Noga, Joanna E. MacLean, Warren H. Finlay and Andrew R. Martin

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:289

    Content type: Research

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  16. Iron deficiency affects up to 50% of patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) but iron markers such as ferritin and serum iron are confounded by several non-disease related factors like acute inflam...

    Authors: Panagiota Xanthouli, Vivienne Theobald, Nicola Benjamin, Alberto M. Marra, Anna D’Agostino, Benjamin Egenlauf, Memoona Shaukat, Cao Ding, Antonio Cittadini, Eduardo Bossone, Maria Kögler, Ekkehard Grünig, Martina U. Muckenthaler and Christina A. Eichstaedt

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:288

    Content type: Research

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  17. The mannitol test is an indirect bronchial challenge test widely used in diagnosing asthma. Response to the mannitol test correlates with the level of eosinophilic and mast cell airway inflammation, and a posi...

    Authors: Asger Sverrild, Joanna Leadbetter and Celeste Porsbjerg

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:287

    Content type: Review

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  18. Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer. Epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an essential pathophysiological process in COPD and plays a...

    Authors: Xiaoshan Su, Junjie Chen, Xiaoping Lin, Xiaoyang Chen, Zhixing Zhu, Weijing Wu, Hai Lin, Jianming Wang, Xiangjia Ye and Yiming Zeng

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:286

    Content type: Research

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  19. Although large advances have recently been made mapping out the cellular composition of lung tissue using single cell sequencing, the composition and distribution of the cellular elements within the lining flu...

    Authors: S. D. Pouwels, Janette K. Burgess, Erik Verschuuren and Dirk-Jan Slebos

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:285

    Content type: Letter to the Editor

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  20. Somatic cells differentiated from patient-specific human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) could be a useful tool in human cell-based disease research. Hermansky–Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is an autosomal rece...

    Authors: Takahiro Suezawa, Shuhei Kanagaki, Yohei Korogi, Kazuhisa Nakao, Toyohiro Hirai, Koji Murakami, Masatoshi Hagiwara and Shimpei Gotoh

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:284

    Content type: Research

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  21. Authors: Alexa Núñez, Irene Belmonte, Elena Miranda, Miriam Barrecheguren, Georgina Farago, Eduardo Loeb, Mònica Pons, Francisco Rodríguez-Frías, Pablo Gabriel-Medina, Esther Rodríguez, Joan Genescà, Marc Miravitlles and Cristina Esquinas

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:283

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Respiratory Research 2021 22:244

  22. The progressive fibrosing (PF) phenotype of interstitial lung disease (ILD) is characterised by worsening respiratory symptoms, lung function, and extent of fibrosis on high-resolution computed tomography. We ...

    Authors: Byoung Soo Kwon, Jooae Choe, Eun Jin Chae, Hee Sang Hwang, Yong-Gil Kim and Jin Woo Song

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:282

    Content type: Research

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  23. This study examined whether BI113823, a novel selective kinin B1 receptor antagonist can reverse established pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), prevent right heart failure and death, which is critical for ...

    Authors: Dileep Reddy Rampa, Priya Murugesan, Honglu Chao, Huiying Feng, Wenxin Dai, Dongwon Lee, Anton Pekcec, Henri Doods and Dongmei Wu

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:281

    Content type: Research

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  24. IL-35 subunit EBI3 is up-regulated in pulmonary fibrosis tissues. In this study, we investigated the pathological role of EBI3 in pulmonary fibrosis and dissected the underlying molecular mechanism.

    Authors: Donghong Chen, Guofeng Zheng, Qing Yang, Le Luo and Jinglian Shen

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:280

    Content type: Research

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  25. In patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the relationship between short-term bronchodilator reversibility and longer-term response to bronchodilators is unclear. Here, we investigated whe...

    Authors: Claus F. Vogelmeier, Paul W. Jones, Edward M. Kerwin, Isabelle H. Boucot, François Maltais, Lee Tombs, Chris Compton, David A. Lipson and Leif H. Bjermer

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:279

    Content type: Research

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  26. Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) is the most common and progressive form of the interstitial lung diseases, leading most patients to require lung transplants to survive. Despite the relatively well-defined ...

    Authors: Danforth A. Newton, Robyn G. Lottes, Rita M. Ryan, Demetri D. Spyropoulos and John E. Baatz

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:278

    Content type: Research

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  27. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a progressive cystic lung disease with mortality driven primarily by respiratory failure. Patients with LAM frequently have respiratory infections, suggestive of a dysregulate...

    Authors: Julie Ng, Gustavo Pacheco-Rodriguez, Lesa Begley, Yvonne J. Huang, Sergio Poli, Mark A. Perrella, Ivan O. Rosas, Joel Moss and Souheil El-Chemaly

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:277

    Content type: Letter to the Editor

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  28. Nocturnal desaturation is common in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and impacts disease exacerbation and prognosis. In our previous study, we developed a diagnostic algorithm to clas...

    Authors: Asuka Yoshizaki, Tatsuya Nagano, Shintaro Izumi, Teruaki Nishiuma, Kyosuke Nakata, Masatsugu Yamamoto, Yuichiro Yasuda, Daisuke Hazama, Kanoko Umezawa, Naoko Katsurada, Motoko Tachihara, Yoshihiro Nishimura and Kazuyuki Kobayashi

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:276

    Content type: Research

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  29. Epidemiological data associate high levels of combustion-derived particulate matter (PM) with deleterious respiratory outcomes, but the mechanism underlying those outcomes remains elusive. It has been acknowle...

    Authors: Jeffrey N. Harding, Maureen Gross, Vivek Patel, Steven Potter and Stephania A. Cormier

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:275

    Content type: Research

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  30. Dysbiosis of the gut microbiome is involved in the pathogenesis of various diseases, but the contribution of gut microbes to the progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is still poorly unde...

    Authors: Naijian Li, Zhouli Dai, Zhang Wang, Zhishan Deng, Jiahuan Zhang, Jinding Pu, Weitao Cao, Tianhui Pan, Yumin Zhou, Zhaowei Yang, Jing Li, Bing Li and Pixin Ran

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:274

    Content type: Research

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  31. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a fatal lung disease with a significant unmet medical need. Development of transformational therapies for IPF is challenging in part to due to lack of robust predictive b...

    Authors: Pitchumani Sivakumar, Ron Ammar, John Ryan Thompson, Yi Luo, Denis Streltsov, Mary Porteous, Carly McCoubrey, Edward Cantu III, Michael F. Beers, Gabor Jarai and Jason D. Christie

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:273

    Content type: Research

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  32. Beta-blocker therapies for cardiovascular comorbidities are often withheld in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) due to potential adverse effects on airway obstruction. We carried out a...

    Authors: Kenneth R. Chapman, Robert A. Wise, Benjamin M. Scirica, Deepak L. Bhatt, Sami Z. Daoud, Dan Lythgoe and Esther Garcia Gil

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:272

    Content type: Research

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  33. In patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the maximum level of diaphragm excursion (DEmax) is correlated with dynamic lung hyperinflation and exercise tolerance. This study aimed to elucidate...

    Authors: Masashi Shiraishi, Yuji Higashimoto, Ryuji Sugiya, Hiroki Mizusawa, Yu Takeda, Shuhei Fujita, Osamu Nishiyama, Shintarou Kudo, Tamotsu Kimura, Yasutaka Chiba, Kanji Fukuda, Yuji Tohda and Hisako Matsumoto

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:271

    Content type: Research

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  34. Two antifibrotic drugs, pirfenidone and nintedanib, are licensed for the treatment of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). However, there is neither evidence from prospective data nor a guideline...

    Authors: Pavo Marijic, Larissa Schwarzkopf, Lars Schwettmann, Thomas Ruhnke, Franziska Trudzinski and Michael Kreuter

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:268

    Content type: Research

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  35. The non-cancerous functions of Akt in the airway are understudied. In some tissues, Akt phosphorylates and activates endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) to produce nitric oxide (NO) that has anti-inflamma...

    Authors: Indiwari Gopallawa, Li Eon Kuek, Nithin D. Adappa, James N. Palmer and Robert J. Lee

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:267

    Content type: Research

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  36. Over 300 million people in the world live with asthma, resulting in 500,000 annual global deaths with future increases expected. It is estimated that around 50–80% of asthma exacerbations are due to viral infe...

    Authors: Yechan Kim, Vincent Hou, Ryan D. Huff, Jennifer A. Aguiar, Spencer Revill, Nicholas Tiessen, Quynh Cao, Matthew S. Miller, Mark D. Inman, Kjetil Ask, Andrew C. Doxey and Jeremy A. Hirota

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:266

    Content type: Research

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  37. αv integrins, key regulators of transforming growth factor-β activation and fibrogenesis in in vivo models of pulmonary fibrosis, are expressed on abnormal epithelial cells (αvβ6) and fibroblasts (αvβ1) in fibrot...

    Authors: Martin L. Decaris, Johanna R. Schaub, Chun Chen, Jacob Cha, Gail G. Lee, Megi Rexhepaj, Steve S. Ho, Vikram Rao, Megan M. Marlow, Prerna Kotak, Erine H. Budi, Lisa Hooi, Jianfeng Wu, Marina Fridlib, Shamra P. Martin, Shaoyi Huang…

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:265

    Content type: Research

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  38. Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a common and potentially life-threatening complication for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. However, there is a lack of clear prognostic factors in rheumatoid arthritis-as...

    Authors: Meihua Qiu, Jing Jiang, Xueyuan Nian, Yutie Wang, Pengfei Yu, Jie Song and Shenchun Zou

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:264

    Content type: Research

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  39. Inhalation of fungal spores is a strong risk factor for severe asthma and experimentally leads to development of airway mycosis and asthma-like disease in mice. However, in addition to fungal spores, humans ar...

    Authors: Yuying Zeng, Yun Zhang, Xinyan Huang, Lizhen Song, Katherine Polsky, Yifan Wu, Farrah Kheradmand, Yubiao Guo, Linda K. Green, David B. Corry and John M. Knight

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:263

    Content type: Research

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  40. Prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) signaling via prostaglandin D2 receptor 2 (DP2) contributes to atopic and non-atopic asthma. Inhibiting DP2 has shown therapeutic benefit in certain subsets of asthma patients, improving e...

    Authors: Saskia Carstensen, Christina Gress, Veit J. Erpenbeck, Shamsah D. Kazani, Jens M. Hohlfeld, David A. Sandham and Meike Müller

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:262

    Content type: Research

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  41. Triple therapy with inhaled corticosteroids/long-acting muscarinic antagonists/long-acting β2-agonists (ICS/LAMA/LABA) is recommended for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with continued ...

    Authors: Omar Usmani, Nicolas Roche, Ezanul Wahab, Samuel Israel, Martin Jenkins, Roopa Trivedi, Paul Dorinsky and Magnus Aurivillius

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:261

    Content type: Research

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  42. The “can do, do do” concept aims at identifying subgroups among persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Following a two-dimensional categorization, individuals are binarily classified with r...

    Authors: J. Carl, K. Schultz, T. Janssens, A. von Leupoldt, K. Pfeifer and W. Geidl

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:260

    Content type: Research

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  43. Health-related quality of life (HRQL) is impaired in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). HRQL is often measured using the St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) despite the development of...

    Authors: Thomas Skovhus Prior, Nils Hoyer, Saher Burhan Shaker, Jesper Rømhild Davidsen, Ole Hilberg, Haridarshan Patel and Elisabeth Bendstrup

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:259

    Content type: Research

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  44. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a key contributing factor to poor survival in lung transplantation recipients. Mitochondrial dysfunction is recognized as a critical mediator in the pathogenesis of diabetic lung isch...

    Authors: Tao Jiang, Tianhua Liu, Xijin Deng, Wengang Ding, Ziyong Yue, Wanchao Yang, Xiangqi Lv and Wenzhi Li

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:258

    Content type: Research

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