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  1. Coronavirus disease COVID-19 has become a public health emergency of international concern. Together with the quest for an effective treatment, the question of the post-infectious evolution of affected patient...

    Authors: AN Frix, L. Schoneveld, A. Ladang, M. Henket, B. Duysinx, F. Vaillant, B. Misset, M. Moutschen, R. Louis, E. Cavalier and J. Guiot

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:309

    Content type: Letter to the Editor

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  2. Despite demonstrated symptomatic benefit from bronchial thermoplasty (BT), the underlying pathophysiological benefits have been uncertain. The purpose of the present study was to relate clinical benefit after ...

    Authors: David Langton, Kim Bennetts, Francis Thien, Virginia Plummer and Peter B. Noble

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:308

    Content type: Research

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  3. The investigation of mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC)-conditioned medium or extracellular vesicles (exosomes or microvesicles) as a remedy for acute lung injury (ALI) or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS...

    Authors: Fengyun Wang, Bin Fang, Xinhua Qiang, Jingsong Shao and Lixin Zhou

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:307

    Content type: Research

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  4. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by repetitive episodes of complete or partial obstruction of the upper airways during sleep. Conscious sedation for flexible bronchoscopy (FB) places patients in ...

    Authors: Andrei M. Darie, Desiree M. Schumann, Marco Laures, Werner Strobel, Kathleen Jahn, Eric Pflimlin, Michael Tamm and Daiana Stolz

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:306

    Content type: Research

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  5. Exposure to electronic-cigarette (e-cig) aerosols induces potentially fatal e-cig or vaping-associated lung injury (EVALI). The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying these effects, however, are unknown....

    Authors: Alexandra Noël, Ekhtear Hossain, Zakia Perveen, Hasan Zaman and Arthur L. Penn

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:305

    Content type: Research

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  6. Multiple classes of oral therapy are available for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), but there is little to guide clinicians in choosing a specific regimen or therapeutic class. We aimed ...

    Authors: Aparna C. Swaminathan, Hongmei Zhu, Victor Tapson, Yuliya Lokhnygina, Abby Poms, Zach Kelleher, Elijah Gaspard, Karla Kennedy, Brian E. Fee, Terry Fortin, S. Nicholas Mason, Kishan Parikh and Tim J. McMahon

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:304

    Content type: Research

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  7. Pulmonary hypertension (PH) developing secondarily in pulmonary fibrosis (PF) patients (PF-PH) is a frequent co-morbidity. The high prevalence of PH in PF patients is very concerning since the presence of PH i...

    Authors: Grégoire Ruffenach, Jason Hong, Mylène Vaillancourt, Lejla Medzikovic and Mansoureh Eghbali

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:303

    Content type: Review

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  8. Characterized by abnormal lung growth or maturation, congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) affects 1:3000 live births. Cellular studies report proximal (SOX2+) and distal (SOX9+) progenitor cells as key modulator...

    Authors: Ana N. Gonçalves, Jorge Correia-Pinto and Cristina Nogueira-Silva

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:302

    Content type: Research

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  9. Tidal expiratory flow limitation (EFLT) promotes intrinsic PEEP (PEEPi) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Applying non-invasive ventilation (NIV) with an expiratory positive airway pr...

    Authors: Emanuela Zannin, Ilaria Milesi, Roberto Porta, Simona Cacciatore, Luca Barbano, R. Trentin, Francesco Fanfulla, Michele Vitacca and Raffaele L. Dellacà

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:301

    Content type: Research

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  10. Globally, a surge in electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use has been observed in recent years, with youth being the most susceptible group. Given their recent emergence, studies assessing the health consequenc...

    Authors: Abdullah Alnajem, Abdullah Redha, Dalal Alroumi, Ahmed Alshammasi, Mohamad Ali, Maram Alhussaini, Waad Almutairi, Ali Esmaeil and Ali H. Ziyab

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:300

    Content type: Research

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  11. Epidemiological studies have found strong associations between air pollution and respiratory effects including development and/or exacerbation of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as well...

    Authors: Marit Låg, Johan Øvrevik, Magne Refsnes and Jørn A. Holme

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:299

    Content type: Review

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  12. Calcium is an important coagulation factor and hypocalcemia is related to progression and poor prognosis of many cardiopulmonary diseases. However, influence of hypocalcemia on pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) ...

    Authors: Xin Wang, Yongbo Xiang, Ting Zhang, Yuqing Yang, Xuefeng Sun and Juhong Shi

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:298

    Content type: Research

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  13. As it is less known about the prevalence and characteristics of pain in the patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD), this paper aims at determining the characteristics of the pain in the patients with ILD.

    Authors: Qinxue Shen, Ting Guo, Min Song, Wei Guo, Yi Zhang, Wang Duan, Yating Peng, Shanshan Ni, Xiaoli Ouyang and Hong Peng

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:297

    Content type: Research

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  14. Patient–ventilator asynchrony is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. A direct causative relationship between Patient–ventilator asynchrony and adverse clinical outcome have yet to be demonstrate...

    Authors: Robert G. T. Blokpoel, Alette A. Koopman, Jefta van Dijk and Martin C. J. Kneyber

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:296

    Content type: Research

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  15. A new clinical guideline for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) uses high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) patterns for diagnostic purposes. However, it is unknown how they relate to the IPF clinical cou...

    Authors: Byoung Soo Kwon, Jooae Choe, Kyung Hyun Do, Hee Sang Hwang, Eun Jin Chae and Jin Woo Song

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:295

    Content type: Research

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  16. Septic-acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), characterized by the acute lung injury (ALI) secondary to aberrant systemic inflammatory response, has high morbidity and mortality. Despite increased underst...

    Authors: Liu Yang, Sijie Liu, Silu Han, Yuhan Hu, Zhipeng Wu, Xiaoqian Shi, Baosen Pang, Yingmin Ma and Jiawei Jin

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:293

    Content type: Research

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  17. There is increasing evidence that the lung is a target organ of diabetes. This study aimed to examine in detail the association between diabetes mellitus and pulmonary function using a national cohort. We also...

    Authors: Rui-Heng Zhang, Jian-Bo Zhou, Yao-Hua Cai, Lin-Ping Shu, Rafael Simó and Albert Lecube

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:292

    Content type: Research

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  18. Body mass index (BMI) is an important parameter associated with mortality and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, informed guidance on stratified we...

    Authors: Manuel B. Huber, Christoph Kurz, Florian Kirsch, Larissa Schwarzkopf, Anja Schramm and Reiner Leidl

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:291

    Content type: Research

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  19. The poor understanding of pathogenesis in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) impaired development of effective therapeutic strategies. The aim of the current study is to investigate the roles of long non-codi...

    Authors: Xiaoyu Wan, Xinbei Tian, Jun Du, Ying Lu and Yongtao Xiao

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:290

    Content type: Research

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  20. There is evidence that bacterial colonisation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with increased neutrophilic airway inflammation. This study tested the hypothesis that different bact...

    Authors: Augusta S. Beech, Simon Lea, Umme Kolsum, Zhang Wang, Bruce E. Miller, Gavin C. Donaldson, Jadwiga A. Wedzicha, Christopher E. Brightling and Dave Singh

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:289

    Content type: Research

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  21. Benefits of variable mechanical ventilation based on the physiological breathing pattern have been observed both in healthy and injured lungs. These benefits have not been characterized in pediatric models and...

    Authors: Andre Dos Santos Rocha, Gergely H. Fodor, Miklos Kassai, Loic Degrugilliers, Sam Bayat, Ferenc Petak and Walid Habre

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:288

    Content type: Research

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  22. Under physiological conditions, CXCL12 modulates cell proliferation, survival, angiogenesis, and migration mainly through CXCR4. Interestingly, the newly discovered receptor CXCR7 for CXCL12 is highly expresse...

    Authors: Huan Liu, Qian Cheng, Dong-sheng Xu, Wen Wang, Zheng Fang, Dong-dong Xue, Ya Zheng, Alex H. Chang and Yan-jun Lei

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:287

    Content type: Research

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  23. It has been recently hypothesized that infection by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) may lead to fibrotic sequelae in patients recovering from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). I...

    Authors: Paola Rogliani, Luigino Calzetta, Angelo Coppola, Ermanno Puxeddu, Gianluigi Sergiacomi, Dejanira D’Amato and Antonio Orlacchio

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:286

    Content type: Letter to the Editor

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  24. A number of single-inhaler triple therapies are being developed for asthma, including the extrafine formulation of beclometasone dipropionate (BDP), formoterol fumarate (FF), and glycopyrronium (G). Given asth...

    Authors: Dave Singh, Johann Christian Virchow, Giorgio Walter Canonica, Andrea Vele, Maxim Kots, George Georges and Alberto Papi

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:285

    Content type: Research

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  25. Pleural effusion (PE) can be divided into benign pleural effusion (BPE) and malignant pleural effusion (MPE). There is no consensus on the identification of lung cancer-associated MPE using the optimal cut-off...

    Authors: Hai Zhang, Changhui Li, Fang Hu, Xueyan Zhang, Yinchen Shen, Yuqing Chen and Feng Li

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:284

    Content type: Research

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  26. COPD has increased in prevalence worldwide over several decades until the first decade after the millennium shift. Evidence from a few recent population studies indicate that the prevalence may be levelling or...

    Authors: Helena Backman, Lowie Vanfleteren, Anne Lindberg, Linda Ekerljung, Caroline Stridsman, Malin Axelsson, Ulf Nilsson, Bright I. Nwaru, Sami Sawalha, Berne Eriksson, Linnea Hedman, Madeleine Rådinger, Sven-Arne Jansson, Anders Ullman, Hannu Kankaanranta, Jan Lötvall…

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:283

    Content type: Research

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  27. Viral respiratory tract infections, such as influenza A virus (IAV), are common and life-threatening illnesses worldwide. The mechanisms by which viruses are removed from the respiratory tract are indispensabl...

    Authors: Yosuke Kamiya, Tomoyuki Fujisawa, Mineo Katsumata, Hideki Yasui, Yuzo Suzuki, Masato Karayama, Hironao Hozumi, Kazuki Furuhashi, Noriyuki Enomoto, Yutaro Nakamura, Naoki Inui, Mitsutoshi Setou, Masahiko Ito, Tetsuro Suzuki, Koji Ikegami and Takafumi Suda

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:282

    Content type: Research

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  28. Thoracentesis is a low-risk procedure for bleeding (approx. 2%). Data regarding safety of thoracentesis under treatment with clopidogrel is scarce, and current guidelines are not evidence based. We performed a...

    Authors: Sivan Perl, Marina Bondarenco, Noam Natif, Yitschak Shpirer, Sharon Enghelberg and Benjamin Fox

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:281

    Content type: Research

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  29. Short-acting β2-agonist (SABA) bronchodilators help alleviate symptoms in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and may be a useful marker of symptom severity. This analysis investigated whether SABA use i...

    Authors: F. Maltais, I. P. Naya, C. F. Vogelmeier, I. H. Boucot, P. W. Jones, L. Bjermer, L. Tombs, C. Compton, D. A. Lipson and E. M. Kerwin

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:280

    Content type: Research

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  30. Tezepelumab is a human monoclonal antibody that blocks the activity of the epithelial cytokine thymic stromal lymphopoietin. The efficacy, safety and oral corticosteroid-sparing potential of tezepelumab are be...

    Authors: Andrew Menzies-Gow, Sandhia Ponnarambil, John Downie, Karin Bowen, Åsa Hellqvist and Gene Colice

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:279

    Content type: Study protocol

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  31. Anti-T2 biological therapies have proven to effectively reduce acute exacerbations and daily doses of oral steroids in severe eosinophilic asthma. Despite the remarkable clinical efficacy, there are usually on...

    Authors: Mustafa Abdo, Henrik Watz, Vera Veith, Anne-Marie Kirsten, Heike Biller, Frauke Pedersen, Erika von Mutius, Matthias V. Kopp, Gesine Hansen, Benjamin Waschki, Klaus F. Rabe, Frederik Trinkmann and Thomas Bahmer

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:278

    Content type: Letter to the Editor

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  32. Prior studies reported that 5 ~ 32% COVID-19 patients were critically ill, a situation that poses great challenge for the management of the patients and ICU resources. We aim to identify independent risk facto...

    Authors: Sijing Cheng, Dingfeng Wu, Jie Li, Yifeng Zou, Yunle Wan, Lihan Shen, Lixin Zhu, Mang Shi, Linlin Hou, Tao Xu, Na Jiao, Yichen Li, Yibo Huang, Zhipeng Tang, Mingwei Xu, Shusong Jiang…

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:277

    Content type: Research

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  33. Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is frequently associated with hyperinflammation and hyperferritinemia. The latter is related to increased mortality in COVID-19. Still, it is not clear if iron dysmet...

    Authors: Thomas Sonnweber, Anna Boehm, Sabina Sahanic, Alex Pizzini, Magdalena Aichner, Bettina Sonnweber, Katharina Kurz, Sabine Koppelstätter, David Haschka, Verena Petzer, Richard Hilbe, Markus Theurl, Daniela Lehner, Manfred Nairz, Bernhard Puchner, Anna Luger…

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:276

    Content type: Research

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  34. Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) is a heterogeneous clinico-radiological syndrome without a consensus definition. There are limited data on the relation between the amount of parenchymal fibros...

    Authors: Masahiro Nemoto, Yuichiro Nei, Brian Bartholmai, Kazuki Yoshida, Hiroki Matsui, Tamao Nakashita, Shinji Motojima, Masahiro Aoshima and Jay H. Ryu

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:275

    Content type: Research

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  35. To date, most studies involving high-throughput analyses of sputum in asthma and COPD have focused on identifying transcriptomic signatures of disease. No whole-genome methylation analysis of sputum cells has ...

    Authors: Espen E. Groth, Melanie Weber, Thomas Bahmer, Frauke Pedersen, Anne Kirsten, Daniela Börnigen, Klaus F. Rabe, Henrik Watz, Ole Ammerpohl and Torsten Goldmann

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:274

    Content type: Research

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  36. Immunoglobulin G4-related lung disease (IgG4-RLD) is the pulmonary manifestation of a systemic fibroinflammatory disease characterized by lymphoplasmacytic infiltration with an abundance of IgG4-positive plasm...

    Authors: Jieun Kang, Shinhee Park, Eun Jin Chae, Joon Seon Song, Hee Sang Hwang, Sun Jong Kim, Tae Jun Song, Myung-Whan Kim and Jin Woo Song

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:273

    Content type: Research

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  37. The longer upper airway is more collapsible during sleep. This study aims to reveal relationships among upper airway length, weight, and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), particularly to answer why the upper airw...

    Authors: Hongyi Lin, Huahui Xiong, Changjin Ji, Cunting Wang, Yong Li, Yunqiang An, Geng Li, Jianggui Guo, Xiaoqing Huang, Han Zhang, Hong Liu, Ting Li, Zheng Li, Junfang Xian and Yaqi Huang

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:272

    Content type: Research

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  38. The role of the microbiota in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) following exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) is largely unknown.

    Authors: Naijian Li, Zhaowei Yang, Baoling Liao, Tianhui Pan, Jinding Pu, Binwei Hao, Zhenli Fu, Weitao Cao, Yuming Zhou, Fang He, Bing Li and Pixin Ran

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:271

    Content type: Research

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  39. Fibrotic interstitial lung disease (ILD) is often associated with poor outcomes, but has few predictors of progression. Daily home spirometry has been proposed to provide important information about the clinic...

    Authors: Tobias Veit, Michaela Barnikel, Alexander Crispin, Nikolaus Kneidinger, Felix Ceelen, Paola Arnold, Dieter Munker, Magdalena Schmitzer, Jürgen Barton, Sanziana Schiopu, Herbert B. Schiller, Marion Frankenberger, Katrin Milger, Jürgen Behr, Claus Neurohr and Gabriela Leuschner

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:270

    Content type: Research

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  40. JUUL, an electronic nicotine delivery system (ENDS), which first appeared on the US market in 2015, controled more than 75% of the US ENDS sales in 2018. JUUL-type devices are currently the most commonly used ...

    Authors: Rakeysha Pinkston, Hasan Zaman, Ekhtear Hossain, Arthur L. Penn and Alexandra Noël

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:269

    Content type: Research

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  41. Despite treatment with standard-of-care medications, including currently available biologic therapies, many patients with severe asthma have uncontrolled disease, which is associated with a high risk of hospit...

    Authors: Andrew Menzies-Gow, Michael E. Wechsler and Chris E. Brightling

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:268

    Content type: Commentary

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  42. Despite improvement in lung function, most lung transplant (LTx) recipients show an unexpectedly reduced exercise capacity that could be explained by persisting peripheral muscle dysfunction of multifactorial ...

    Authors: Fausto Braccioni, Daniele Bottigliengo, Andrea Ermolao, Marco Schiavon, Monica Loy, Maria Rita Marchi, Dario Gregori, Federico Rea and Andrea Vianello

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:267

    Content type: Research

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  43. Patients with severe, uncontrolled asthma have a significant unmet need for new treatments that have broader effects on airway inflammation, and that provide greater improvements in asthma outcomes than curren...

    Authors: Andrew Menzies-Gow, Gene Colice, Janet M. Griffiths, Gun Almqvist, Sandhia Ponnarambil, Primal Kaur, Gennaro Ruberto, Karin Bowen, Åsa Hellqvist, May Mo and Esther Garcia Gil

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:266

    Content type: Study protocol

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  44. Patients with severe, uncontrolled asthma, particularly those with a non-eosinophilic phenotype, have a great unmet need for new treatments that act on a broad range of inflammatory pathways in the airway. Tez...

    Authors: Claire Emson, Sarah Diver, Latifa Chachi, Ayman Megally, Cherrie Small, John Downie, Jane R. Parnes, Karin Bowen, Gene Colice and Chris E. Brightling

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:265

    Content type: Study protocol

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  45. Many patients with severe asthma continue to experience asthma symptoms and exacerbations despite standard-of-care treatment. A substantial proportion of these patients require long-term treatment with oral co...

    Authors: Michael E. Wechsler, Gene Colice, Janet M. Griffiths, Gun Almqvist, Tor Skärby, Teresa Piechowiak, Primal Kaur, Karin Bowen, Åsa Hellqvist, May Mo and Esther Garcia Gil

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:264

    Content type: Study protocol

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  46. Long-term treatment with corticosteroids causes loss of bone density, but the effects of using short-term high-dose systemic-corticosteroid therapy to treat acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary...

    Authors: Pradeesh Sivapalan, Niklas R. Jørgensen, Alexander G. Mathioudakis, Josefin Eklöf, Therese Lapperre, Charlotte Suppli Ulrik, Helle F. Andreassen, Karin Armbruster, Praleene Sivapalan, Julie Janner, Nina Godtfredsen, Ulla M. Weinreich, Thyge L. Nielsen, Niels Seersholm, Torgny Wilcke, Philipp Schuetz…

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:263

    Content type: Research

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  47. Mitochondrial damage and dysfunction have been reported in airway and quadriceps muscle cells of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We determined the concomitance of mitochondrial dysf...

    Authors: Gulam Haji, Coen H. Wiegman, Charalambos Michaeloudes, Mehul S. Patel, Katrina Curtis, Pankaj Bhavsar, Michael I. Polkey, Ian M. Adcock and Kian Fan Chung

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2020 21:262

    Content type: Research

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