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  1. Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) is a debilitating disease characterized by exaggerated extracellular matrix deposition and aggressive lung structural remodeling. Disease pathogenesis is driven by fibroblas...

    Authors: KL Watts, E Cottrell, PR Hoban and MA Spiteri
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:88
  2. L-arginine is the common substrate for nitric oxide synthases and arginases. Increased arginase levels in the blood of patients with cystic fibrosis may result in L-arginine deficiency and thereby contribute t...

    Authors: Hartmut Grasemann, Raphael Schwiertz, Corinna Grasemann, Udo Vester, Kurt Racké and Felix Ratjen
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:87
  3. Surfactant dysfunction due to inhibition is involved in the pathophysiology of meconium aspiration syndrome. Dextran addition has been shown to reverse exogenous surfactant inactivation by meconium, but the pr...

    Authors: Matthias Ochs, Markus Schüttler, Guido Stichtenoth and Egbert Herting
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:86
  4. Ozone (O3), a common air pollutant, induces exacerbation of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Pulmonary surfactant protein (SP)-D modulates immune and inflammatory responses in the lung. We have s...

    Authors: S Kierstein, FR Poulain, Y Cao, M Grous, R Mathias, G Kierstein, MF Beers, M Salmon, RA Panettieri Jr and A Haczku
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:85
  5. Recognition of repeat unmethylated CpG motifs from bacterial DNA through Toll-like receptor (TLR-9) has been shown to induce interleukin (IL)-8 expression in immune cells. We sought to investigate the role of ...

    Authors: N William Parilla, Valerie S Hughes, Kristin M Lierl, Hector R Wong and Kristen Page
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:84
  6. There is a growing body of evidence to suggest that CD8+ T lymphocytes contribute to local allergen-induced eosinophilic inflammation. Since bone marrow (BM) responses are intricately involved in the induction of...

    Authors: Madeleine Rådinger, Svetlana Sergejeva, Anna-Karin Johansson, Carina Malmhäll, Apostolos Bossios, Margareta Sjöstrand, James J Lee and Jan Lötvall
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:83
  7. According to the hygiene hypothesis, infections in early life protect from allergic diseases. However, in earlier studies surrogate measures of infection rather than clinical infections were associated with de...

    Authors: Anne Zutavern, Stephanie von Klot, Ulrike Gehring, Susanne Krauss-Etschmann and Joachim Heinrich
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:81
  8. Effects of respiratory viral infection on airway epithelium include airway hyper-responsiveness and inflammation. Both features may contribute to the development of asthma. Excessive damage and loss of epithel...

    Authors: Gurpreet K Singhera, Tiffany S Chan, Jenny Y Cheng, Timothy Z Vitalis, Kimm J Hamann and Delbert R Dorscheid
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:78
  9. Alpha-defensins, which are major constituents of neutrophil azurophilic granules, and beta-defensins, which are expressed in airway epithelial cells, could contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive...

    Authors: Alison M Wallace, Jian-Qing He, Kelly M Burkett, Jian Ruan, John E Connett, Nicholas R Anthonisen, Peter D Paré and Andrew J Sandford
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:76
  10. Eicosanoid receptors are G-protein-coupled receptors playing an important immunomodulatory role in airway diseases. However, there is little information on the expression of these receptors and their link with...

    Authors: Claudina Angela Pérez-Novo, Cindy Claeys, Paul Van Cauwenberge and Claus Bachert
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:75
  11. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) can experience 'exacerbations' of their conditions. An exacerbation is an event defined in terms of subjective descriptors or symptoms, namely dyspnoe...

    Authors: Luigi G Franciosi, Clive P Page, Bartolome R Celli, Mario Cazzola, Michael J Walker, Meindert Danhof, Klaus F Rabe and E Della Oscar Pasqua
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:74
  12. An increasing prevalence of allergic diseases, such as atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis and bronchial asthma, has been noted worldwide. Allergic asthma strongly correlates with airway inflammation caused b...

    Authors: Chi-Ling Fu, Yi-Ling Ye, Yueh-Lun Lee and Bor-Luen Chiang
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:72
  13. Exacerbations of asthma are associated with viral respiratory tract infections, of which rhinoviruses (RV) are the predominant virus type. Airway smooth muscle is important in asthma pathogenesis, however litt...

    Authors: Brian GG Oliver, Sebastian L Johnston, Melissa Baraket, Janette K Burgess, Nicholas JC King, Michael Roth, Sam Lim and Judith L Black
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:71
  14. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with increased oxidative and nitrosative stress. The aim of our study was to assess the importance of these factors in the airways of healthy smokers ...

    Authors: Paula Rytilä, Tiina Rehn, Helen Ilumets, Annamari Rouhos, Anssi Sovijärvi, Marjukka Myllärniemi and Vuokko L Kinnula
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:69
  15. Mechanical strain alters protein expression. It results in phosphorylation of MAP kinases and up-regulation of extracellular matrix proteins. We investigated whether phosphorylation of MAP kinase family member...

    Authors: Frédérique Le Bellego, Sophie Plante, Jamila Chakir, Qutayba Hamid and Mara S Ludwig
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:68
  16. The major risk factor for the development of COPD is cigarette smoking. Smoking causes activation of resident cells and the recruitment of inflammatory cells into the lungs, which leads to release of pro-infla...

    Authors: Khalil Karimi, Hadi Sarir, Esmaeil Mortaz, Joost J Smit, Hossein Hosseini, Sjef J De Kimpe, Frans P Nijkamp and Gert Folkerts
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:66
  17. It has been proposed that serotonin (5-HT)-mediated constriction of the murine trachea is largely dependent on acetylcholine (ACh) released from the epithelium. We recently demonstrated that ACh can be release...

    Authors: Wolfgang Kummer, Silke Wiegand, Sibel Akinci, Ignatz Wessler, Alfred H Schinkel, Jürgen Wess, Hermann Koepsell, Rainer V Haberberger and Katrin S Lips
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:65
  18. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterised by pulmonary and systemic inflammation which flare-up during episodes of acute exacerbation (AECOPD). Given the role of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) ...

    Authors: Jaume Pons, Jaume Sauleda, Verónica Regueiro, Carmen Santos, Meritxell López, Joana Ferrer, Alvar GN Agustí and José A Bengoechea
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:64
  19. It has been suggested that cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs) play an important role in airway remodeling. Previous reports have indicated that cysLTs augment human airway smooth muscle cell proliferation. Recent...

    Authors: Christiane Lex, Angela Zacharasiewicz, Donald NR Payne, Nicola M Wilson, Andrew G Nicholson, Sergei A Kharitonov, Peter J Barnes and Andrew Bush
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:63
  20. Patient-reported outcomes (PRO) questionnaires are being increasingly used in COPD clinical studies. The challenge facing investigators is to determine what change is significant, ie what is the minimal clinic...

    Authors: JWH Kocks, MG Tuinenga, SM Uil, JWK van den Berg, E Ståhl and T van der Molen
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:62
  21. The Whey Acidic Protein domain is an evolutionarily conserved motif found in a number of proteins, the best studied of which are antiproteinases involved in the innate immune defence of multiple epithelia. We ...

    Authors: Lynne Bingle, Simon S Cross, Alec S High, William A Wallace, Doris Rassl, Guanglu Yuan, Ingegerd Hellstrom, Michael A Campos and Colin D Bingle
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:61
  22. The vitamin D prophylaxis of rickets in pregnant women and newborns may play a role in early allergic sensitization. We now asked if an already diseased population may have inherited genetic variants in the vi...

    Authors: Matthias Wjst, Janine Altmüller, Theresia Faus-Kessler, Christine Braig, Margret Bahnweg and Elisabeth André
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:60
  23. Asthma is associated with airway hyperresponsiveness and enhanced T-cell number/activity on one hand and increased levels of exhaled nitric oxide (NO) with expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) on the oth...

    Authors: Robert Ten Broeke, Rini De Crom, Rien Van Haperen, Vivienne Verweij, Thea Leusink-Muis, Ingrid Van Ark, Fred De Clerck, Frans P Nijkamp and Gert Folkerts
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:58
  24. Nontypable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a common bacterial pathogen causing human respiratory tract infections under permissive conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Inhalation of β2-recep...

    Authors: Nico A Maris, Sandrine Florquin, Cornelis van't Veer, Alex F de Vos, Wim Buurman, Henk M Jansen and Tom van der Poll
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:57
  25. Although tuberculosis (TB) is a minor problem in Denmark, severe and complicated cases occur in HIV positive. Since the new M. tuberculosis specific test for latent TB, the QuantiFERON-TB In-Tube test (QFT-IT) be...

    Authors: Inger Brock, Morten Ruhwald, Bettina Lundgren, Henrik Westh, Lars R Mathiesen and Pernille Ravn
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:56
  26. The effects of pulmonary arterial hypertension on cardiovascular and physical function are well documented. Limited information exists regarding the effects of pulmonary arterial hypertension on cognitive func...

    Authors: Joanne White, Ramona O Hopkins, Eric W Glissmeyer, Natalie Kitterman and C Gregory Elliott
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:55
  27. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterised by chronic inflammation of the airways and progressive destruction of lung parenchyma, a process that in most cases is initiated by cigarette smoki...

    Authors: Ingel K Demedts, Tine Demoor, Ken R Bracke, Guy F Joos and Guy G Brusselle
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:53
  28. Recent reports indicate that over the next decade rates of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in women will exceed those in men in the western world, though in most jurisdictions, women continue to s...

    Authors: Wen Qi Gan, SF Paul Man, Dirkje S Postma, Patricia Camp and Don D Sin
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:52
  29. Lung disease in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients is dominated by chronic inflammation with an early and inappropriate influx of neutrophils causing airway destruction. Congenic C57BL/6 CF mice develop lung inflam...

    Authors: Sam Tirkos, Susan Newbigging, Van Nguyen, Mary Keet, Cameron Ackerley, Geraldine Kent and Richard F Rozmahel
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:51
  30. Myofibroblasts, proposed as being derived from circulating fibrocytes, are considered to be important cells in thickening of the basement membrane in patients with asthma. We have studied the correlation of ti...

    Authors: Kristian Nihlberg, Kristoffer Larsen, Anna Hultgårdh-Nilsson, Anders Malmström, Leif Bjermer and Gunilla Westergren-Thorsson
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:50
  31. Only few studies have assessed the relative impact of prenatal and postnatal exposure to tobacco smoke on the child's later asthma or chronic respiratory symptoms and to our knowledge no studies have elaborate...

    Authors: Jouni JK Jaakkola, Anna A Kosheleva, Boris A Katsnelson, Sergey V Kuzmin, Larissa I Privalova and John D Spengler
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:48
  32. Dexamethasone (Dex) limits and all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) promotes alveolarization. While structural changes resulting from such hormonal exposures are known, their functional consequences are unclear.

    Authors: Samuel J Garber, Huayan Zhang, Joseph P Foley, Hengjiang Zhao, Stephan J Butler, Rodolfo I Godinez, Marye H Godinez, Andrew J Gow and Rashmin C Savani
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:47
  33. Whole airway wall thickening on high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is reported to parallel thickening of the bronchial epithelial reticular basement membrane (RBM) in adult asthmatics. A similar relati...

    Authors: S Saglani, G Papaioannou, L Khoo, M Ujita, PK Jeffery, C Owens, DM Hansell, DN Payne and A Bush
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:46
  34. As prolonged hyperoxia induces extensive lung tissue damage, we set out to investigate the involvement of endothelin-1 (ET-1) receptors in these adverse changes.

    Authors: Walid Habre, Ferenc Peták, Isabelle Ruchonnet-Metrailler, Yves Donati, Jean-Francois Tolsa, Eniko Lele, Gergely Albu, Morice Beghetti and Constance Barazzone-Argiroffo
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:45
  35. The World Health Organisation (WHO) defines Russia as one of the 22 highest-burden countries for tuberculosis (TB). The WHO Directly Observed Treatment Short Course (DOTS) strategy employing a standardised tre...

    Authors: Y Balabanova, F Drobniewski, I Fedorin, S Zakharova, V Nikolayevskyy, R Atun and R Coker
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:44
  36. Avian influenza virus H5N1 has demonstrated considerable pandemic potential. Currently, no effective vaccines for H5N1 infection are available, so passive immunotherapy may be an alternative strategy. To inves...

    Authors: Jiahai Lu, Zhongmin Guo, Xinghua Pan, Guoling Wang, Dingmei Zhang, Yanbin Li, Bingyan Tan, Liping Ouyang and Xinbing Yu
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:43
  37. Cysteine-containing leukotrienes (cysteinyl-LTs) are pivotal inflammatory mediators that play important roles in the pathophysiology of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and other inflammatory conditions. In particul...

    Authors: Saula Ravasi, Simona Citro, Barbara Viviani, Valérie Capra and G Enrico Rovati
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:42
  38. Acute lung injury (ALI) induces a coagulation/fibrinolysis imbalance and leads to fibrin deposition. The protein C pathway is an important regulator of the coagulation system and reduces the inflammatory respo...

    Authors: Laurent Robriquet, François Collet, Antoine Tournoys, Thierry Prangère, Rémi Nevière, François Fourrier and Benoît P Guery
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:41

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