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  1. The concurrent management of allergic rhinitis and asthma (ARA) has been recommended by Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) guidelines. However, a tool capable of assessing simultaneously the con...

    Authors: Luis Nogueira-Silva, Sonia V Martins, Ricardo Cruz-Correia, Luis F Azevedo, Mario Morais-Almeida, António Bugalho-Almeida, Marianela Vaz, Altamiro Costa-Pereira and Joao A Fonseca
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2009 10:52
  2. Excessive oxidative stress has been reported to be generated in inflamed tissues and contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory lung diseases, exacerbations of which induced by viral infections are associa...

    Authors: Satoru Yanagisawa, Akira Koarai, Hisatoshi Sugiura, Tomohiro Ichikawa, Masae Kanda, Rie Tanaka, Keiichiro Akamatsu, Tsunahiko Hirano, Kazuto Matsunaga, Yoshiaki Minakata and Masakazu Ichinose
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2009 10:50
  3. Asthma is an increasing global health burden, especially in the western world. Public health interventions are sought to lessen its prevalence or severity, and diet and nutrition have been identified as potent...

    Authors: June-Ho Kim, Philippa E Ellwood and M Innes Asher
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2009 10:49
  4. Inhaled steroid resistance is an obstacle to asthma control in asthmatic smokers. The reasons of this phenomenon are not yet entirely understood. Interaction of drug particles with environmental tobacco smoke ...

    Authors: Giovanni Invernizzi, Ario Ruprecht, Cinzia De Marco, Roberto Mazza, Gabriele Nicolini and Roberto Boffi
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2009 10:48
  5. Myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (mDCs, pDC) are crucial to the immune system, detecting microorganisms and linking the innate and adaptive immunity. pDC are present in small quantities in tissues that...

    Authors: Esmaeil Mortaz, Zsofia Lazar, Leo Koenderman, Aletta D Kraneveld, Frans P Nijkamp and Gert Folkerts
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2009 10:47
  6. The aim of this study was to examine potential therapeutic effect of the two NO donors NCX 2057 (3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-propenoic acid) 4-(nitrooxy)butyl ester) and SNP (sodium nitroprusside) on the e...

    Authors: Anna-Karin Larsson, Magnus Bäck, Jon O Lundberg and Sven-Erik Dahlén
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2009 10:46
  7. The purpose of our study was to examine the association of prior outpatient use of statins and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors on mortality for subjects ≥ 65 years of age hospitalized with acute...

    Authors: Eric M Mortensen, Laurel A Copeland, Mary Jo V Pugh, Marcos I Restrepo, Rosa Malo de Molina, Brandy Nakashima and Antonio Anzueto
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2009 10:45
  8. The immune mechanisms associated with infection-induced disease exacerbations in asthma and COPD are not fully understood. Toll-like receptor (TLR) 3 has an important role in recognition of double-stranded vir...

    Authors: Nicole C Stowell, Jonathan Seideman, Holly A Raymond, Karen A Smalley, Roberta J Lamb, Devon D Egenolf, Peter J Bugelski, Lynne A Murray, Paul A Marsters, Rachel A Bunting, Richard A Flavell, Lena Alexopoulou, Lani R San Mateo, Don E Griswold, Robert T Sarisky, M Lamine Mbow…
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2009 10:43
  9. Activated T helper (Th)-1 pulmonary CD4+ cells and their mediators are essential for the inflammation and granulomatous process in sarcoidosis. Recently, T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain (TIM) molecules wer...

    Authors: Farah Idali, Jan Wahlström, Benita Dahlberg, Mohsen Khademi, Tomas Olsson, Anders Eklund and Johan Grunewald
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2009 10:42
  10. Airway inflammation in COPD can be measured using biomarkers such as induced sputum and FeNO. This study set out to explore the heterogeneity of COPD using biomarkers of airway and systemic inflammation and pulmo...

    Authors: Kay Roy, Jacky Smith, Umme Kolsum, Zöe Borrill, Jørgen Vestbo and Dave Singh
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2009 10:41
  11. In patients with chronic idiopathic cough, there is a chronic inflammatory response together with evidence of airway wall remodelling and an increase in airway epithelial nerves expressing TRPV-1. We hypothesi...

    Authors: Shaoping Xie, Patricia Macedo, Mark Hew, Christina Nassenstein, Kang-Yun Lee and Kian Fan Chung
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2009 10:40
  12. Recent development in the field of COPD has focused on strategies aimed at reducing the underlying inflammation through selective inhibition of the phosphodiesterase type IV (PDE4) isoform. Although the anti-i...

    Authors: Marylène Fortin, Hélène D'Anjou, Marie-Ève Higgins, Jasmine Gougeon, Paméla Aubé, Kamel Moktefi, Sonia Mouissi, Serge Séguin, Rosanne Séguin, Paolo M Renzi, Luc Paquet and Nicolay Ferrari
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2009 10:39
  13. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common respiratory disorder for which new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches are required. Hallmarks of COPD are matrix destruction and neutrophilic airway ...

    Authors: Philip O'Reilly, Patricia L Jackson, Brett Noerager, Suzanne Parker, Mark Dransfield, Amit Gaggar and J Edwin Blalock
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2009 10:38
  14. The tachykinins, substance P and neurokinin A, present in sensory nerves and inflammatory cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells, are considered as pro-inflammatory agents. Inflammation of the airways a...

    Authors: Katelijne O De Swert, Ken R Bracke, Tine Demoor, Guy G Brusselle and Guy F Joos
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2009 10:37
  15. The biologically active form of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) plays a key role in the development of lung fibrosis. CD36 is involved in the transformation of latent TGF-β1 (L-TGF-β1) to active TGF-β1....

    Authors: Xin Wang, Ying Chen, Lina Lv and Jie Chen
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2009 10:36
  16. One of the mechanisms by which adult disease can arise from a fetal origin is by in utero disruption of organogenesis. These studies were designed to examine respiratory function changes in aging rats followin...

    Authors: Joseph J Hudak, Erin Killeen, Ashok Chandran, J Craig Cohen and Janet E Larson
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2009 10:34
  17. MIF is a critical mediator of the host defense, and is involved in both acute and chronic responses in the lung. Neutralization of MIF reduces neutrophil accumulation into the lung in animal models. We hypothe...

    Authors: Koichiro Takahashi, Kiyokazu Koga, Helena M Linge, Yinzhong Zhang, Xinchun Lin, Christine N Metz, Yousef Al-Abed, Kaie Ojamaa and Edmund J Miller
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2009 10:33
  18. Simvastatin has been shown to ameliorate pulmonary hypertension by several mechanisms in experimental animal models. In this study, we hypothesized that the major benefits of simvastatin in pulmonary hypertens...

    Authors: Hsao-Hsun Hsu, Wen-Je Ko, Jo-Yu Hsu, Jin-Shing Chen, Yung-Chie Lee, I-Rue Lai and Chau-Fong Chen
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2009 10:32
  19. Neutrophils play an important role in the pathophysiology of RSV, though RSV does not appear to directly activate neutrophils in the lower airways. Therefore locally produced cytokines or other molecules relea...

    Authors: Derek S Wheeler, Margaret A Chase, Albert P Senft, Sue E Poynter, Hector R Wong and Kristen Page
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2009 10:31
  20. Phosphodiesterase-5 inhibition with sildenafil has been used to treat severe pulmonary hypertension and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), a chronic lung disease in very preterm infants who were mechanically ve...

    Authors: Yvonne P de Visser, Frans J Walther, El Houari Laghmani, Hester Boersma, Arnoud van der Laarse and Gerry TM Wagenaar
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2009 10:30
  21. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a treatable and preventable disease state, characterised by progressive airflow limitation that is not fully reversible. Although COPD is primarily a disease of ...

    Authors: Joanna L Richens, Richard A Urbanowicz, Elizabeth AM Lunt, Rebecca Metcalf, Jonathan Corne, Lucy Fairclough and Paul O'Shea
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2009 10:29
  22. Determinants of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) need to be understood better to maximize the value of FeNO measurement in clinical practice and research. Our aim was to identify significant predictors of FeNO in a...

    Authors: William S Linn, Edward B Rappaport, Kiros T Berhane, Tracy M Bastain, Edward L Avol and Frank D Gilliland
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2009 10:28
  23. The properties of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as a potent vascular permogen and mitogen have led to investigation of its potential role in lung injury. Alternate spliced VEGF transcript generates...

    Authors: Andrew RL Medford, Samantha K Douglas, Sofia IH Godinho, Kay M Uppington, Lynne Armstrong, Kathleen M Gillespie, Berendine van Zyl, Terry D Tetley, Nassif BN Ibrahim and Ann B Millar
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2009 10:27
  24. Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. Infections of the respiratory tract are a hallmark in CF. The host immune responses in CF are...

    Authors: Yaqin Xu, Christine Tertilt, Anja Krause, Luis EN Quadri, Ronald G Crystal and Stefan Worgall
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2009 10:26
  25. Inhalation of crystalline silica induces a pulmonary fibrotic degeneration called silicosis caused by the inability of alveolar macrophages to dissolve the crystalline structure of phagocytosed quartz particle...

    Authors: Sonia Scarfì, Mirko Magnone, Chiara Ferraris, Marina Pozzolini, Federica Benvenuto, Umberto Benatti and Marco Giovine
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2009 10:25
  26. The abnormal regulation of neutrophil apoptosis may contribute to the ineffective resolution of inflammation in chronic lung diseases. Multiple signalling pathways are implicated in regulating granulocyte apop...

    Authors: Vanessa Brown, J Stuart Elborn, Judy Bradley and Madeleine Ennis
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2009 10:24
  27. Multiple evidences indicate that inflammation is an event occurring prior to infection in patients with cystic fibrosis. The self-perpetuating inflammatory cycle may play a pathogenic part in this disease. The...

    Authors: Mathilde Rottner, Jean-Marie Freyssinet and M Carmen Martínez
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2009 10:23
  28. Airborne particles entering the respiratory tract may interact with the apical plasma membrane (APM) of epithelial cells and enter them. Differences in the entering mechanisms of fine (between 0.1 μm and 2.5 μ...

    Authors: Christina Brandenberger, Barbara Rothen-Rutishauser, Fabian Blank, Peter Gehr and Christian Mühlfeld
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2009 10:22
  29. Variation in ADAM33 has been shown to be important in the development of asthma and altered lung function. This relationship however, has not been investigated in the population susceptible to COPD; long term ...

    Authors: Alireza Sadeghnejad, Jill A Ohar, Siqun L Zheng, David A Sterling, Gregory A Hawkins, Deborah A Meyers and Eugene R Bleecker
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2009 10:21
  30. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a respiratory inflammatory condition with autoimmune features including IgG autoantibodies. In this study we analyze the complexity of the autoantibody response ...

    Authors: Petra Leidinger, Andreas Keller, Sabrina Heisel, Nicole Ludwig, Stefanie Rheinheimer, Veronika Klein, Claudia Andres, Jürg Hamacher, Hanno Huwer, Bernhard Stephan, Ingo Stehle, Hans-Peter Lenhof and Eckart Meese
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2009 10:20
  31. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is closely associated with ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) in very preterm infants. The greatest risk of VILI may be in the immediate period after birth, when the lungs a...

    Authors: Megan J Wallace, Megan E Probyn, Valerie A Zahra, Kelly Crossley, Timothy J Cole, Peter G Davis, Colin J Morley and Stuart B Hooper
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2009 10:19
  32. Synthetic peptides containing the RGD sequence inhibit integrin-related functions in different cell systems. Here, we investigated the effects of synthetic Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser (RGDS) peptide on key inflammatory re...

    Authors: Changsuk Moon, Jeong Ran Han, Hyun-Jung Park, Jong Sik Hah and Jihee Lee Kang
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2009 10:18
  33. Hypoxia induces the proliferation of lung fibroblasts in vivo and in vitro. However, the subcellular interactions between hypoxia and expression of tumor suppressor p53 and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p...

    Authors: Shiro Mizuno, Herman J Bogaard, Norbert F Voelkel, Yukihiro Umeda, Maiko Kadowaki, Shingo Ameshima, Isamu Miyamori and Takeshi Ishizaki
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2009 10:17
  34. The present document is the result of a consensus reached by a panel of experts from European and non-European countries on Occupational Rhinitis (OR), a disease of emerging relevance which has received little...

    Authors: Gianna Moscato, Olivier Vandenplas, Roy Gerth Van Wijk, Jean-Luc Malo, Luca Perfetti, Santiago Quirce, Jolanta Walusiak, Roberto Castano, Gianni Pala, Denyse Gautrin, Hans De Groot, Ilenia Folletti, Mona Rita Yacoub and Andrea Siracusa
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2009 10:16
  35. To evaluate the sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) for the diagnosis of asthma in general practice.

    Authors: Antonius Schneider, Lisa Tilemann, Tjard Schermer, Lena Gindner, Gunter Laux, Joachim Szecsenyi and Franz Joachim Meyer
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2009 10:15
  36. Recent evidence has underscored the role of hypoxia and angiogenesis in the pathogenesis of idiopathic fibrotic lung disease. Inhibitor of growth family member 4 (ING4) has recently attracted much attention as...

    Authors: Argyris Tzouvelekis, Vassilis Aidinis, Vagelis Harokopos, Andreas Karameris, George Zacharis, Dimitrios Mikroulis, Fotios Konstantinou, Paschalis Steiropoulos, Ioannis Sotiriou, Marios Froudarakis, Ioannis Pneumatikos, Rodoula Tringidou and Demosthenes Bouros
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2009 10:14
  37. Decreased infiltration of Foxp3+ T regulatory cell (Treg) is considered to be critical for the Th1/Th2 dysregulation of nasal polyps, while the cellular mechanism underlying Foxp3+ Treg insufficiency is curren...

    Authors: Geng Xu, Jiahong Xia, Xiaoyang Hua, Han Zhou, Chuanzhao Yu, Zheng Liu, Kemin Cai, Jianbo Shi and Huabin Li
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2009 10:13
  38. Oral corticosteroids and inhaled bronchodilators with or without antibiotics represent standard treatment of COPD exacerbations of moderate severity. Frequent courses of oral steroids may be a safety issue. We...

    Authors: Björn Ställberg, Olof Selroos, Claus Vogelmeier, Eva Andersson, Tommy Ekström and Kjell Larsson
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2009 10:11
  39. Pneumocystis spp. are opportunistic pathogens that cause pneumonia in immunocompromised humans and animals. Pneumocystis colonization has also been detected in immunocompetent hosts and may exacerbate other pulm...

    Authors: Michael J Linke, Alan D Ashbaugh, Jeffery A Demland and Peter D Walzer
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2009 10:10
  40. Alveolar epithelial cells are known as progenitor cells for the restoration from the damage in the lung. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) has been reported to play an important role in the proliferation ...

    Authors: Yukiko Kawanami, Yasuo Morimoto, Heungnam Kim, Takehiro Nakamura, Kazuhiko Machida, Takashi Kido, Etsuko Asonuma, Kazuhiro Yatera, Chiharu Yoshii and Masamitsu Kido
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2009 10:8
  41. Systemic effects of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) significantly contribute to severity and mortality of the disease. We aimed to develop a COPD/emphysema model exhibiting systemic manifestations...

    Authors: Lars Lüthje, Tobias Raupach, Hellmuth Michels, Bernhard Unsöld, Gerd Hasenfuss, Harald Kögler and Stefan Andreas
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2009 10:7
  42. Inflammation may contribute to the pathogenesis of various forms of pulmonary hypertension (PH). Recent studies in patients with idiopathic PH or PH associated with underlying diseases suggest a role for inter...

    Authors: Laurent Savale, Ly Tu, Dominique Rideau, Mohamed Izziki, Bernard Maitre, Serge Adnot and Saadia Eddahibi
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2009 10:6
  43. Asthma can be difficult to diagnose, but bronchial provocation with methacholine, exercise or mannitol is helpful when used to identify bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR), a key feature of the disease. The ut...

    Authors: Sandra D Anderson, Brett Charlton, John M Weiler, Sara Nichols, Sheldon L Spector and David S Pearlman
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2009 10:4
  44. Asthma is a chronic airway inflammatory disease characterized by an imbalance in both Th1 and Th2 cytokines. Exhaled nitric oxide (NO) is elevated in asthma, and is a potentially useful non-invasive marker of ...

    Authors: Jingjing Jiang, Nikita Malavia, Vinod Suresh and Steven C George
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2009 10:3

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