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  1. Rapid response systems (RRSs) improve patients’ safety, but the role of dedicated doctors within these systems remains controversial. We aimed to evaluate patient survival rates and differences in types of int...

    Authors: Hyung-Jun Kim, Kyeongman Jeon, Byung Ju Kang, Jong-Joon Ahn, Sang-Bum Hong, Dong-Hyun Lee, Jae Young Moon, Jung Soo Kim, Jisoo Park, Jae Hwa Cho, Sang-Min Lee and Yeon Joo Lee

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:236

    Content type: Research

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  2. Cigarette smoke triggers many cellular and signaling responses in the lung and the resulting inflammation plays a central role in smoke-related lung diseases, such as COPD. We explored the effects of smoking o...

    Authors: Spela Kokelj, Jörgen Östling, Benjamin Georgi, Karin Fromell, Kristina Nilsson Ekdahl, Henric K. Olsson and Anna-Carin Olin

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:234

    Content type: Research

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  3. Ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) is a common complication in the treatment of respiratory diseases with high morbidity and mortality. ETS-domain containing protein (Elk1) and Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP...

    Authors: Zhao Tao, Yan Jie, Zhang Mingru, Gu Changping, Yang Fan, Wu Haifeng and Wang Yuelan

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:233

    Content type: Research

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  4. Leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor B4 (LILRB4) is one of the inhibitory receptors in various types of immune cells including macrophages. Previous reports suggested that LILRB4 could be involved in a negat...

    Authors: Ayumi Mitsune, Mitsuhiro Yamada, Naoya Fujino, Tadahisa Numakura, Tomohiro Ichikawa, Ayumi Suzuki, Shuichiro Matsumoto, Yoshiya Mitsuhashi, Koji Itakura, Tomonori Makiguchi, Akira Koarai, Tsutomu Tamada, Shota Endo, Toshiyuki Takai, Yoshinori Okada, Satoshi Suzuki…

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:232

    Content type: Research

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  5. Inhaled epoprostenol (iEPO) has been shown to reduce pulmonary artery pressure and improve oxygenation. iEPO is mainly delivered via a syringe pump with feed tubing connected to a vibrating mesh nebulizer with...

    Authors: Jie Li, Ashley E. Augustynovich, Payal K. Gurnani and James B. Fink

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:231

    Content type: Research

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  6. Agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ have been suggested as potential adjuvant therapy in bacterial pneumonia because of their capacity to inhibit inflammation and enhance bacterial ...

    Authors: Ivan Ramirez-Moral, Bianca Lima Ferreira, Alex F. de Vos and Tom van der Poll

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:230

    Content type: Letter to the Editor

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  7. The multidimensional and complex care needs of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) call for appropriate care models. This systematic review aimed to identify care models or components thereof tha...

    Authors: Anouk Delameillieure, Sarah Vandekerkhof, Bastiaan Van Grootven, Wim A. Wuyts and Fabienne Dobbels

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:229

    Content type: Review

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  8. Transbronchial cryobiopsy in the evaluation of patients with interstitial lung diseases (ILD) is expected to reduce the need for surgical lung biopsy (SLB).

    Authors: Katrin E. Hostettler, Michael Tamm, Lukas Bubendorf, Peter Grendelmeier, Kathleen Jahn, Daiana Stolz, Jens Bremerich and Spasenija Savic Prince

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:228

    Content type: Letter to the Editor

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  9. The innate and adaptive immune system is involved in the airway inflammation associated with acute exacerbations in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We evaluated the association of m...

    Authors: Severin Vogt, Jörg D. Leuppi, Philipp Schuetz, Beat Mueller, Carmen Volken, Sarah Dräger, Marten Trendelenburg, Jonas Rutishauser and Michael Osthoff

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:227

    Content type: Research

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  10. Chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (CHP) is an interstitial lung disease (ILD) caused by long term exposure to an offending antigen. Antigen avoidance is associated with improved outcomes. We are unable to i...

    Authors: Kerri I. Aronson, Ronan O’Beirne, Fernando J. Martinez and Monika M. Safford

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:225

    Content type: Research

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  11. Sarcoidosis most commonly affects lungs and intrathoracic lymph nodes, but any other organ can be involved. In epidemiological studies, many occupational and environmental exposures have been linked to sarcoid...

    Authors: Steven Ronsmans, Jolien De Ridder, Eline Vandebroek, Stephan Keirsbilck, Benoit Nemery, Peter H. M. Hoet, Steven Vanderschueren, Wim A. Wuyts and Jonas Yserbyt

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:224

    Content type: Research

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  12. The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in significant acute morbidity and mortality worldwide. There is now a growing recognition of the longer-term sequelae of this infection, termed “long COVID”. However, little...

    Authors: Grace Y. Lam, A. Dean Befus, Ronald W. Damant, Giovanni Ferrara, Desi P. Fuhr, Michael K. Stickland, Rhea A. Varughese, Eric Y. Wong and Maeve P. Smith

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:222

    Content type: Letter to the Editor

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  13. Prone positioning is recommended for patients with moderate-to-severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) receiving mechanical ventilation. While the debate continues as to whether COVID-19 ARDS is clin...

    Authors: Jimyung Park, Hong Yeul Lee, Jinwoo Lee and Sang-Min Lee

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:220

    Content type: Research

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  14. Haemoptysis is a challenging symptom that can be associated with potentially life-threatening medical conditions. Follow-up is key in these patients to promptly detect new or misdiagnosed pathologic findings. ...

    Authors: Michele Mondoni, Paolo Carlucci, Giuseppe Cipolla, Matteo Pagani, Francesco Tursi, Alessandro Fois, Pietro Pirina, Sara Canu, Stefano Gasparini, Martina Bonifazi, Silvia Marani, Andrea Comel, Laura Saderi, Sabrina De Pascalis, Fausta Alfano, Stefano Centanni…

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:219

    Content type: Research

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  15. Treatments of interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) mainly focus on disease stabilization and relief of symptoms by managing inflammation or suppressing fibrosis by (in part costly) drugs. To highlight economic bu...

    Authors: Phillen Nozibuyiso Maqhuzu, Michael Kreuter, Thomas Bahmer, Nicolas Kahn, Martin Claussen, Rolf Holle and Larissa Schwarzkopf

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:218

    Content type: Research

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  16. Previous studies have shown inconsistent results regarding the impact of traffic pollution on the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Therefore, using frequency matching and propensity ...

    Authors: Hui-Tsung Hsu, Chih-Da Wu, Mu-Chi Chung, Te-Chun Shen, Ting-Ju Lai, Chiu-Ying Chen, Ruey-Yun Wang and Chi-Jung Chung

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:217

    Content type: Research

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  17. Neutrophilic asthmatics (NA) have less response to inhaled corticosteroids. We aimed to find out the predictor of treatment response in NA.

    Authors: Shengding Zhang, Yu Fan, Lu Qin, Xiaoyu Fang, Cong Zhang, Junqing Yue, Wenxue Bai, Gang Wang, Zhihong Chen, Harld Renz, Chrysanthi Skevaki, Xiansheng Liu and Min Xie

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:216

    Content type: Research

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  18. Clinical course of pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (PPFE) shows considerable variation among patients, but there is no established prognostic prediction model for PPFE.

    Authors: Yoshiaki Kinoshita, Takato Ikeda, Takuto Miyamura, Yusuke Ueda, Yuji Yoshida, Hisako Kushima, Masaki Fujita, Takashi Ogura, Kentaro Watanabe and Hiroshi Ishii

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:215

    Content type: Research

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  19. We evaluated the effects of abrupt versus gradual PEEP decrease, combined with standard versus high-volume fluid administration, on cardiac function, as well as lung and kidney damage in an established model o...

    Authors: Nazareth N. Rocha, Cynthia S. Samary, Mariana A. Antunes, Milena V. Oliveira, Matheus R. Hemerly, Patrine S. Santos, Vera L. Capelozzi, Fernanda F. Cruz, John J. Marini, Pedro L. Silva, Paolo Pelosi and Patricia R. M. Rocco

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:214

    Content type: Research

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  20. Increasing evidence revealed that airway microbial dysbiosis was associated with increased risk of asthma, or persistent wheezing (PW). However, the role of lung microbiota in PW or wheezing recurrence remains...

    Authors: Lei Wu, Chencong Shen, Yuanling Chen, Xin Yang, Xiaofei Luo, Chengcheng Hang, Lingling Yan and Xuefeng Xu

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:213

    Content type: Research

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  21. Alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins (ACDMPV) is a rare lethal congenital lung disorder in neonates characterized by severe progressive respiratory failure and refractory pulmonary...

    Authors: Justyna A. Karolak, Tomasz Gambin, Przemyslaw Szafranski, Rebecca L. Maywald, Edwina Popek, Jason D. Heaney and Paweł Stankiewicz

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:212

    Content type: Research

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  22. Whether acute respiratory failure in patients with interstitial lung disease is reversible remains uncertain. Consequently, indications for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in these patients are still contr...

    Authors: Yuko Usagawa, Kosaku Komiya, Mari Yamasue, Kiyohide Fushimi, Kazufumi Hiramatsu and Jun-ichi Kadota

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:211

    Content type: Research

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  23. Although cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for lung cancer, the incidence rate of lung cancer among non-smokers is notable. The etiology and potential mechanism of non-smoker lung cancer are worthy of f...

    Authors: Fanglin Yu, Rendong Xiao, Xu Li, Zhijian Hu, Lin Cai and Fei He

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:210

    Content type: Research

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  24. In some RCTs comparing triple therapy with dual therapy in COPD, there might be a bias resulting from the use of multiple inhaler devices. This meta-analysis included only RCTs that compared ICS/LABA/LAMA vs. ...

    Authors: Huanyu Long, Hongxuan Xu, Jean-Paul Janssens and Yanfei Guo

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:209

    Content type: Research

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  25. Very preterm infants are at high risk of developing chronic lung disease, which requires respiratory support and might have long-term sequelae. As lung inflammation plays an important role in pathogenesis, ant...

    Authors: Marlide Jukema, Franciszek Borys, Greta Sibrecht, Karsten Juhl Jørgensen and Matteo Bruschettini

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:208

    Content type: Review

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  26. Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) is a major serine protease inhibitor. AAT deficiency (AATD) is a genetic disorder characterized by early-onset severe emphysema. In well-selected AATD patients, therapy with plasma-de...

    Authors: Katsuyuki Takeda, Soo-Hyun Kim, Anthony Joetham, Irina Petrache and Erwin W. Gelfand

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:207

    Content type: Research

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  27. Respiratory viral infections are one of the leading causes of need for emergency care and hospitalizations in asthmatic individuals, and airway-secreted cytokines are released within hours of viral infection t...

    Authors: Kristi J. Warren, Jill A. Poole, Jenea M. Sweeter, Jane M. DeVasure, John D. Dickinson, R. Stokes Peebles Jr and Todd A. Wyatt

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:206

    Content type: Research

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  28. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is characterized by the accumulation of fibrillar collagens in the alveolar space resulting in reduced pulmonary function and a high mortality rate. Biomarkers measuring the...

    Authors: H. Jessen, N. Hoyer, T. S. Prior, P. Frederiksen, M. A. Karsdal, D. J. Leeming, E. Bendstrup, J. M. B. Sand and S. B. Shaker

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:205

    Content type: Research

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  29. Inflammation is an essential mechanism of various diseases. The development and resolution of inflammation are complex immune-modulation processes which induce the involvement of various types of immune cells....

    Authors: Ailin Yang, Yanjun Wu, Ganggang Yu and Haoyan Wang

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:204

    Content type: Review

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  30. Thousands of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients have been discharged from hospitals Persistent follow-up studies are required to evaluate the prevalence of post-COVID-19 fibrosis.

    Authors: Xiaohe Li, Chenguang Shen, Lifei Wang, Sumit Majumder, Die Zhang, M. Jamal Deen, Yanjie Li, Ling Qing, Ying Zhang, Chuming Chen, Rongrong Zou, Jianfeng Lan, Ling Huang, Cheng Peng, Lijiao Zeng, Yanhua Liang…

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:203

    Content type: Research

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  31. The University of California, San Diego Shortness of Breath Questionnaire (UCSDSOBQ) is a frequently used domain-specific dyspnea questionnaire; however, there is little information available regarding its use...

    Authors: Tao Chen, Amy Po Yu Tsai, Seo Am Hur, Alyson W. Wong, Mohsen Sadatsafavi, Jolene H. Fisher, Kerri A. Johannson, Deborah Assayag, Julie Morisset, Shane Shapera, Nasreen Khalil, Charlene D. Fell, Helene Manganas, Gerard Cox, Teresa To, Andrea S. Gershon…

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:202

    Content type: Research

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  32. The effect of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) on risk of hyperglycemia in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains ambiguous. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association betwee...

    Authors: Xiaofeng Pu, Liang Liu, Bimin Feng, Zhengji Zhang and Guojun Wang

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:201

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  33. The first step in SARS-CoV-2 infection is binding of the virus to angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) on the airway epithelium. Asthma affects over 300 million people world-wide, many of whom may encounter ...

    Authors: Sarah L. O’Beirne, Jacqueline Salit, Robert J. Kaner, Ronald G. Crystal and Yael Strulovici-Barel

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:200

    Content type: Research

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  34. Observational studies on the general population have suggested that airflow obstruction associates with left ventricular (LV) filling. To limit the influence of environmental risk factors/exposures, we used a ...

    Authors: Lars Harbaum, Jan K. Hennigs, Marcel Simon, Tim Oqueka, Henrik Watz and Hans Klose

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:199

    Content type: Research

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  35. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is multifactorial and can result from sepsis, trauma, or pneumonia, amongst other primary pathologies. It is one of the major causes of death in critically ill patien...

    Authors: Premila D. Leiphrakpam, Hannah R. Weber, Andrea McCain, Roser Romaguera Matas, Ernesto Martinez Duarte and Keely L. Buesing

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:198

    Content type: Research

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  36. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive debilitating lung disease with considerable morbidity. Heterogeneity in epidemiologic studies means the full impact of the disease is unclear.

    Authors: Toby M. Maher, Elisabeth Bendstrup, Louis Dron, Jonathan Langley, Gerald Smith, Javaria Mona Khalid, Haridarshan Patel and Michael Kreuter

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:197

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  37. Neonatal intermittent hypoxia (IH) results in oxidative distress in preterm infants with immature antioxidant systems, contributing to lung injury. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) and fish oil protect against oxidative i...

    Authors: Christina D’Agrosa, Charles L. Cai, Faisal Siddiqui, Karen Deslouches, Stephen Wadowski, Jacob V. Aranda and Kay D. Beharry

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:196

    Content type: Research

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  38. We recently reported histone methyltransferase enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) as a key epigenetic regulator that contributes to the dysfunction of innate immune responses to sepsis and subsequent lung inju...

    Authors: Xiaowei Bao, Xiandong Liu, Na Liu, Shougang Zhuang, Qian Yang, Huijuan Ren, Dongyang Zhao, Jianwen Bai, Xiaohui Zhou and Lunxian Tang

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:194

    Content type: Research

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  39. Endothelial glycocalyx loss is integral to increased pulmonary vascular permeability in sepsis-related acute lung injury. Protectin conjugates in tissue regeneration 1 (PCTR1) is a novel macrophage-derived lip...

    Authors: Xin-Yang Wang, Xin-Yu Li, Cheng-Hua Wu, Yu Hao, Pan-Han Fu, Hong-Xia Mei, Fang Chen, Yu-Qiang Gong, Sheng-Wei Jin and Hui Li

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:193

    Content type: Research

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  40. To explore the role of family with sequence similarity 13 member A (FAM13A) in TGF-β1-induced EMT in the small airway epithelium of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

    Authors: Jinyuan Zhu, Faxuan Wang, Xueyan Feng, Beibei Li, Liqiong Ma and Jin Zhang

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:192

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  41. For patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), greater improvements in lung function have been demonstrated for triple versus dual inhaled therapies in traditional spirometry studies. This stu...

    Authors: Maarten van den Berge, Jan De Backer, Cedric Van Holsbeke, Wilfried De Backer, Roopa Trivedi, Martin Jenkins, Paul Dorinsky and Magnus Aurivillius

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:191

    Content type: Research

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  42. In this study, we tested whether a combination of radiomic features extracted from baseline pre-immunotherapy computed tomography (CT) images and clinicopathological characteristics could be used as novel noni...

    Authors: Bin Yang, Li Zhou, Jing Zhong, Tangfeng Lv  , Ang Li, Lu Ma, Jian Zhong, Saisai Yin, Litang Huang, Changsheng Zhou, Xinyu Li, Ying Qian Ge, Xinwei Tao, Longjiang Zhang, Yong Son and Guangming Lu

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:189

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  43. Xuan-bai-cheng-qi decoction (XCD), a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription, has been widely used to treat a variety of respiratory diseases in China, especially to seriously infectious diseases such ...

    Authors: Huahe Zhu, Shun Wang, Cong Shan, Xiaoqian Li, Bo Tan, Qilong Chen, Yunxiang Yang, Hongji Yu and Aidong Yang

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:188

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  44. In the Phase III KRONOS study, triple therapy with budesonide/glycopyrronium/formoterol fumarate metered dose inhaler (BGF MDI) was shown to reduce exacerbations and improve lung function versus glycopyrronium...

    Authors: Shigeo Muro, Hisatoshi Sugiura, Patrick Darken and Paul Dorinsky

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:187

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in Respiratory Research 2021 22:223

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