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  1. Bone marrow -derived cells (BMDCs) can either limit or contribute to the process of pulmonary vascular remodeling. Whether the difference in their effects depends on the mechanism of pulmonary hypertension (PH...

    Authors: William Raoul, Orianne Wagner-Ballon, Guitanouch Saber, Anne Hulin, Elisabeth Marcos, Stéphane Giraudier, William Vainchenker, Serge Adnot, Saadia Eddahibi and Bernard Maitre
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2007 8:8
  2. Low body mass index has been associated with increased mortality in severe COPD. The impact of body composition earlier in the disease remains unclear. We studied the impact of body composition on the risk of ...

    Authors: Mark D Eisner, Paul D Blanc, Steve Sidney, Edward H Yelin, Phenius V Lathon, Patricia P Katz, Irina Tolstykh, Lynn Ackerson and Carlos Iribarren
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2007 8:7
  3. Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are members of the Pneumovirinae subfamily of Paramyxoviridae and can cause severe respiratory disease, especially in infants and young children....

    Authors: Barbara Huck, Dieter Neumann-Haefelin, Annette Schmitt-Graeff, Markus Weckmann, Jörg Mattes, Stephan Ehl and Valeria Falcone
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2007 8:6
  4. Existing data on the effect of treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) on T-cell responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)-specific antigens are contradictory. Differences in technical aspects of th...

    Authors: Delia Goletti, M Pasquale Parracino, Ornella Butera, Federica Bizzoni, Rita Casetti, Duilio Dainotto, Gianfranco Anzidei, Carla Nisii, Giuseppe Ippolito, Fabrizio Poccia and Enrico Girardi
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2007 8:5
  5. The rapid desensitization of the human prostacyclin (IP) in response to agonist binding has been shown in cell culture. Phosphorylation of the IP receptor by protein kinase C (PKC) has been suggested to be inv...

    Authors: Ralph T Schermuly, Soni S Pullamsetti, Susanne C Breitenbach, Norbert Weissmann, Hossein A Ghofrani, Friedrich Grimminger, Sigrid M Nilius, Karsten Schrör, Jutta Meger-Kirchrath, Werner Seeger and Frank Rose
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2007 8:4
  6. Intranasal inoculation of Streptococcus pneumoniae D39 serotype 2 causes fatal pneumonia in mice. The cytotoxic and inflammatory properties of pneumolysin (PLY) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of pneumoc...

    Authors: María del Mar García-Suárez, Noelia Flórez, Aurora Astudillo, Fernando Vázquez, Roberto Villaverde, Kevin Fabrizio, Liise-Anne Pirofski and Francisco J Méndez
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2007 8:3
  7. Understanding the environmental and genetic risk factors of accelerated lung function decline in the general population is a first step in a prevention strategy against the worldwide increasing respiratory pat...

    Authors: Medea Imboden, Sara H Downs, Oliver Senn, Gabor Matyas, Otto Brändli, Erich W Russi, Christian Schindler, Ursula Ackermann-Liebrich, Wolfgang Berger and Nicole M Probst-Hensch
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2007 8:2
  8. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) has been widely observed in patients suffering interstitial pulmonary fibrosis. In vitro studies have also demonstrated that AECs ...

    Authors: Zhuang Wu, Leilei Yang, Lin Cai, Min Zhang, Xuan Cheng, Xiao Yang and Jun Xu
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2007 8:1
  9. Several studies have demonstrated that long-acting β2-agonists such as salmeterol are beneficial in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A meta-analysis was therefore conducted to review studies in COPD ...

    Authors: Robert A Stockley, Philip J Whitehead and Michael K Williams
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:147
  10. Overactivation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) orchestrates airway eosinophilia, but does not dampen airway hyperresponsiveness in asthma. NF-κB repression by arsenic trioxide (As2O3) contributes to apoptosis of eos...

    Authors: Lin-Fu Zhou, Yi Zhu, Xue-Fan Cui, Wei-Ping Xie, Ai-Hua Hu and Kai-Sheng Yin
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:146
  11. Adult-derived bone marrow stem cells are capable of reconstituting the haematopoietic system. However there is ongoing debate in the literature as to whether bone marrow derived cells have the ability to popul...

    Authors: Heather MacPherson, Pamela A Keir, Carol J Edwards, Sheila Webb and Julia R Dorin
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:145
  12. Survival remains an issue in pulmonary hypertension, a chronic disorder that often affects aged human adults. In young adult mice and rats, chronic 50% hypoxia (11% FIO2 or 0.5 atm) induces pulmonary hypertens...

    Authors: Edouard H Debonneuil, Janine Quillard and Etienne-Emile Baulieu
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:144
  13. Several studies have reported an association between asthma and gastro-oesophageal reflux, but it is unclear which condition develops first. The role of obesity in mediating this association is also unclear. W...

    Authors: Robert J Hancox, Richie Poulton, D Robin Taylor, Justina M Greene, Christene R McLachlan, Jan O Cowan, Erin M Flannery, G Peter Herbison, Malcolm R Sears and Nicholas J Talley
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:142
  14. The long-acting β2-agonist (LABA) formoterol has an onset of effect comparable to that of salbutamol. Consequently, the combination of formoterol and budesonide in one inhaler, approved for maintenance use, can p...

    Authors: René E Jonkers, Theo A Bantje and René Aalbers
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:141
  15. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by irreversible airflow limitation and airway inflammation, accompanied by decreased health status. It is still unknown which factors are responsib...

    Authors: Jiska B Snoeck-Stroband, Dirkje S Postma, Thérèse S Lapperre, Margot ME Gosman, Henk A Thiadens, Henk F Kauffman, Jacob K Sont, Désirée F Jansen and Peter J Sterk
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:140
  16. Functional deterioration in cystic fibrosis (CF) may be reflected by increasing bronchial obstruction and, as recently shown, by ventilation inhomogeneities. This study investigated which physiological factors...

    Authors: Richard Kraemer, David N Baldwin, Roland A Ammann, Urs Frey and Sabina Gallati
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:138
  17. Leukotrienes are increased locally in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Furthermore, a role for these arachidonic acid metabolites has been thoroughly characterized in the animal bleomycin model of lung fibrosis ...

    Authors: Marco Failla, Tiziana Genovese, Emanuela Mazzon, Elisa Gili, Carmelo Muià, Mariangela Sortino, Nunzio Crimi, Achille P Caputi, Salvatore Cuzzocrea and Carlo Vancheri
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:137
  18. Inflammation is considered to be of primary pathogenic importance in COPD but the evidence on which current understanding is based does not distinguish between cause and effect, and no single mechanism can acc...

    Authors: David G Parr, Andrew J White, Darren L Bayley, Peter J Guest and Robert A Stockley
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:136
  19. The role of Th2 cells (producing interleukin (IL-)4, IL-5 and IL-13) in allergic asthma is well-defined. A distinct proinflammatory T cell lineage has recently been identified, called Th17 cells, producing IL-17A...

    Authors: Dominique MA Bullens, Els Truyen, Liesbeth Coteur, Ellen Dilissen, Peter W Hellings, Lieven J Dupont and Jan L Ceuppens
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:135
  20. Inflammation plays a critical role in lung disease development and progression in cystic fibrosis. Azithromycin is used for the treatment of cystic fibrosis lung disease, although its mechanisms of action are ...

    Authors: Rachida Legssyer, François Huaux, Jean Lebacq, Monique Delos, Etienne Marbaix, Patrick Lebecque, Dominique Lison, Bob J Scholte, Pierre Wallemacq and Teresinha Leal
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:134
  21. One typical feature in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the disturbance of the oxidant/antioxidant balance. Glutaredoxins (Grx) are thiol disulfide oxido-reductases with antioxidant capacity and...

    Authors: Mirva J Peltoniemi, Paula H Rytilä, Terttu H Harju, Ylermi M Soini, Kaisa M Salmenkivi, Lloyd W Ruddock and Vuokko L Kinnula
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:133
  22. Cigarette smoke mediated oxidative stress and inflammatory events in the airway and alveolar epithelium are important processes in the pathogenesis of smoking related pulmonary diseases. Previously, individual...

    Authors: Aruna Kode, Se-Ran Yang and Irfan Rahman
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:132
  23. Patient-reported side effect questionnaires offer a simple method for the systematic measurement of drug-related side effects. In order to measure patients' inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) related side effect pe...

    Authors: Juliet M Foster, Eric van Sonderen, Amanda J Lee, Robbert Sanderman, Antoon Dijkstra, Dirkje S Postma and Thys van der Molen
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:131
  24. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a heterogeneous disease caused by the interaction of genetic susceptibility and environmental influences. There is increasing evidence that genes link to disease...

    Authors: Alice M Wood and Robert A Stockley
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:130
  25. Previous genetic analysis has shown that a deletion in the complement component 5 gene-coding region renders mice more susceptible to allergen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) due to reduced IL-12 prod...

    Authors: Laura McKinley, Jiyoun Kim, Gerald L Bolgos, Javed Siddiqui and Daniel G Remick
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:129
  26. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent mediator of angiogenesis which has multiple effects in lung development and physiology. VEGF is expressed in several parts of the lung and the pleura while...

    Authors: Andriana I Papaioannou, Konstantinos Kostikas, Panagoula Kollia and Konstantinos I Gourgoulianis
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:128
  27. In patients with COPD, both laboratory exercise tests and field walking tests are used to assess physical performance. In laboratory tests, peak exercise capacity in watts (W peak) and/or peak oxygen uptake (VO2 ...

    Authors: Ragnheiður Harpa Arnardóttir, Margareta Emtner, Hans Hedenström, Kjell Larsson and Gunnar Boman
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:127
  28. Highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza virus is a major public health concern. Given the lack of effective vaccine and recent evidence of antiviral drug resistance in some isolates, alternative strategies for ...

    Authors: Brendon J Hanson, Adrianus CM Boon, Angeline PC Lim, Ashley Webb, Eng Eong Ooi and Richard J Webby
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:126
  29. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) is the most widely studied pleiotropic cytokine of the TNF superfamily. In pathophysiological conditions, generation of TNFα at high levels leads to the development of inflam...

    Authors: Srirupa Mukhopadhyay, John R Hoidal and Tapan K Mukherjee
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:125
  30. It has been suggested that low μM concentrations of S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), an endogenous bronchodilator, may promote maturation of the defective cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator (...

    Authors: Zhanna Servetnyk, Jelena Krjukova, Benjamin Gaston, Khalequz Zaman, Lena Hjelte, Godfried M Roomans and Anca Dragomir
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:124
  31. Gap junctions are membrane channels formed by an array of connexins which links adjacent cells realizing an electro- metabolic synapse. Connexin-mediated communication is crucial in the regulation of cell grow...

    Authors: Angela Trovato-Salinaro, Elisa Trovato-Salinaro, Marco Failla, Claudio Mastruzzo, Valerio Tomaselli, Elisa Gili, Nunzio Crimi, Filippo Daniele Condorelli and Carlo Vancheri
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:122
  32. In guinea pigs, we have previously demonstrated that the contribution of Rho-kinase to airway responsiveness in vivo and ex vivo is enhanced after active sensitization with ovalbumin (OA). Using conscious, unrest...

    Authors: Dedmer Schaafsma, I Sophie T Bos, Annet B Zuidhof, Johan Zaagsma and Herman Meurs
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:121
  33. Tuberculosis is a leading killer of young adults worldwide and the global scourge of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis is reaching epidemic proportions. It is endemic in most developing countries and resurgent...

    Authors: Lisa Claire du Toit, Viness Pillay and Michael Paul Danckwerts
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:118
  34. Airway smooth muscle (ASM) contraction underlies acute bronchospasm in asthma. ASM cells can switch between a synthetic-proliferative phenotype and a contractile phenotype. While the effects of extracellular m...

    Authors: Thai Tran, Karol D McNeill, William T Gerthoffer, Helmut Unruh and Andrew J Halayko
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:117
  35. Acute exacerbations of COPD are a major cause of morbidity, mortality and hospitalisation. Respiratory viruses are associated with the majority of exacerbations but a causal relationship has not been demonstra...

    Authors: Patrick Mallia, Simon D Message, Tatiana Kebadze, Hayley L Parker, Onn M Kon and Sebastian L Johnston
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:116
  36. Staphylococcus aureus produces a set of proteins which act both as superantigens and toxins. Although their mode of action as superantigens is well understood, little is known about their effects on airway epithe...

    Authors: Garrett J O'Brien, Gareth Riddell, J Stuart Elborn, Madeleine Ennis and Grzegorz Skibinski
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:115
  37. The molecular mechanisms of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) remain elusive. Transforming Growth Factor beta 1(TGF-β1) is a key effector cytokine in the development of lung fibrosis. We used microarray and ...

    Authors: Dominic T Keating, Denise M Sadlier, Andrea Patricelli, Sinead M Smith, Dermot Walls, Jim J Egan and Peter P Doran
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:114
  38. The airway functions are profoundly affected in many diseases including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cystic fibrosis (CF). CF the most common lethal autosomal recessive genetic dise...

    Authors: Clarisse Vandebrouck, Patricia Melin, Caroline Norez, Renaud Robert, Christelle Guibert, Yvette Mettey and Frédéric Becq
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:113
  39. Chitosan, a polymer derived from chitin, has been used for nasal drug delivery because of its biocompatibility, biodegradability and bioadhesiveness. Theophylline is a drug that reduces the inflammatory effect...

    Authors: Dong-Won Lee, Shawna A Shirley, Richard F Lockey and Shyam S Mohapatra
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:112
  40. Small airway and vessels play a critical role in chronic airway and pulmonary vascular diseases, but their pharmacology has not been well characterised. We have studied airway and vascular responses in rat lun...

    Authors: L Moreno, F Perez-Vizcaino, L Harrington, R Faro, G Sturton, PJ Barnes and JA Mitchell
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:111
  41. The combination of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and long-acting β2-agonists (LABA) is recommended by treatment guidelines for the treatment of persistent asthma. Two such combination products, salmeterol/flut...

    Authors: Jan Lötvall, Stephen Langley and Ashley Woodcock
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:110
  42. The aim of this study was to analyse mortality and associated risk factors, with special emphasis on health status, medications and co-morbidity, in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) t...

    Authors: Gunnar Gudmundsson, Thorarinn Gislason, Eva Lindberg, Runa Hallin, Suppli Charlotte Ulrik, Eva Brøndum, Markku M Nieminen, Tiina Aine, Per Bakke and Christer Janson
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:109
  43. Caveolae are involved in diverse cellular functions such as signal transduction, cholesterol homeostasis, endo- and transcytosis, and also may serve as entry sites for microorganisms. Hence, their occurrence i...

    Authors: Gabriela Krasteva, Uwe Pfeil, Marek Drab, Wolfgang Kummer and Peter König
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:108
  44. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of acute bronchiolitis in infants and the elderly. Furthermore, epidemiological data suggest that RSV infection during infancy is a potent trigger of ...

    Authors: Dahui You, David Becnel, Kai Wang, Michael Ripple, Melissa Daly and Stephania A Cormier
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:107
  45. Chronic lung diseases are a major issue in public health. A serial pulmonary assessment using imaging techniques free of ionizing radiation and which provides early information on local function impairment wou...

    Authors: Maren Zapke, Hans-Georg Topf, Martin Zenker, Rainer Kuth, Michael Deimling, Peter Kreisler, Manfred Rauh, Christophe Chefd'hotel, Bernhard Geiger and Thomas Rupprecht
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2006 7:106

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