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  1. Progestins as respiratory stimulants in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have been investigated in males and during wakefulness. However, sleep and gender may influence therapeutic responses. We in...

    Authors: Tarja Saaresranta, Tero Aittokallio, Karri Utriainen and Olli Polo
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:28
  2. The respiratory tract epithelium is a critical environmental interface that regulates inflammation. In chronic infectious airway diseases, pathogens may permanently colonize normally sterile luminal environmen...

    Authors: Qi Wu, Zhong Lu, Margrith W Verghese and Scott H Randell
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:26
  3. CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODN) are capable of inducing high amounts of type I IFNs with many immunomodulatory properties. Furthermore, type-I IFNs have been proposed to play a key role in mediating effect...

    Authors: Victor Matheu, Alexandra Treschow, Ingrid Teige, Vaidrius Navikas and Shohreh Issazadeh-Navikas
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:25
  4. Inhibition of phrenic nerve activity (PNA) can be achieved when alveolar ventilation is adequate and when stretching of lung tissue stimulates mechanoreceptors to inhibit inspiratory activity. During mechanica...

    Authors: Esther Rieger-Fackeldey, Richard Sindelar, Anders Jonzon, Andreas Schulze and Gunnar Sedin
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:24
  5. Recent evidence suggests that endogenous arginase activity potentiates airway responsiveness to methacholine by attenuation of agonist-induced nitric oxide (NO) production, presumably by competition with epith...

    Authors: Harm Maarsingh, Marieke A Tio, Johan Zaagsma and Herman Meurs
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:23
  6. Chronic smoking is the main risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Knowledge on the response to the initial smoke exposures might enhance the understanding of changes due to chronic smoking, si...

    Authors: Hester van der Vaart, Dirkje S Postma, Wim Timens, Machteld N Hylkema, Brigitte WM Willemse, H Marike Boezen, Judith M Vonk, Dorothea M de Reus, Henk F Kauffman and Nick HT ten Hacken
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:22
  7. The pulmonary residence time of inhaled glucocorticoids as well as their rate and extend of absorption into systemic circulation are important facets of their efficacy-safety profile. We evaluated a novel appr...

    Authors: Matthias Freiwald, Anagnostis Valotis, Andreas Kirschbaum, Monika McClellan, Thomas Mürdter, Peter Fritz, Godehard Friedel, Michael Thomas and Petra Högger
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:21
  8. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is an interstitial lung disease caused by repeated inhalations of finely dispersed organic particles or low molecular weight chemicals. The disease is characterized by an alve...

    Authors: Carlo Agostini, Fiorella Calabrese, Venerino Poletti, Guido Marcer, Monica Facco, Marta Miorin, Anna Cabrelle, Ilenia Baesso, Renato Zambello, Livio Trentin and Gianpietro Semenzato
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:20
  9. The complement system forms the central core of innate immunity but also mediates a variety of inflammatory responses. Anaphylatoxin C3a, which is generated as a byproduct of complement activation, has long be...

    Authors: Hydar Ali and Reynold A Panettieri Jr
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:19
  10. The heat shock proteins (Hsps) are induced by stresses such as allergic factors and inflammatory responses in bronchi epithelial cells and therefore may be detectable in patients with asthma. However, the etio...

    Authors: Miao Yang, Tangchun Wu, Longxian Cheng, Feng Wang, Qingyi Wei and Robert M Tanguay
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:18
  11. While the functional consequences of acute pulmonary infections are widely documented, few studies focused on chronic pneumonia. We evaluated the consequences of chronic Pseudomonas lung infection on alveolar fun...

    Authors: Sophie Boyer, Karine Faure, Florence Ader, Odile Marie Husson, Eric Kipnis, Thierry Prangere, Xavier Leroy and Benoit P Guery
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:17
  12. Flexible video bronchoscopes, in particular the Olympus BF Type 3C160, are commonly used in pediatric respiratory medicine. There is no data on the magnification and distortion effects of these bronchoscopes y...

    Authors: IB Masters, MM Eastburn, PW Francis, R Wootton, PV Zimmerman, RS Ware and AB Chang
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:16
  13. There is a dearth of standardized studies examining exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and its relationship to respiratory health among adults in developing countries.

    Authors: Wasim Maziak, Kenneth D Ward, Samer Rastam, Fawaz Mzayek and Thomas Eissenberg
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:13
  14. α1-antitrypsin (AAT) serves primarily as an inhibitor of the elastin degrading proteases, neutrophil elastase and proteinase 3. There is ample clinical evidence that inherited severe AAT deficiency predisposes...

    Authors: Izabela Nita, Camilla Hollander, Ulla Westin and Sabina-Marija Janciauskiene
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:12
  15. Reactive oxygen species and tissue remodeling regulators, such as metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors (TIMPs), are thought to be involved in the development of pulmonary fibrosis. We investigated th...

    Authors: Boris Manoury, Soazig Nenan, Olivier Leclerc, Isabelle Guenon, Elisabeth Boichot, Jean-Michel Planquois, Claude P Bertrand and Vincent Lagente
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:11
  16. The mechanisms during the initial phase of oxygen toxicity leading to pulmonary tissue damage are incompletely known. Increase of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) represents one of the first pulmonary r...

    Authors: Florian Guthmann, Heide Wissel, Christian Schachtrup, Angelika Tölle, Mario Rüdiger, Friedrich Spener and Bernd Rüstow
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:10
  17. Growing evidence shows that interleukin 13 (IL-13) may play an essential role in the development of airway inflammation and bronchial hyper-responsiveness (BHR), two defining features of asthma. Although the u...

    Authors: Farhat Syed, Reynold A Panettieri Jr, Omar Tliba, Chris Huang, Katherine Li, Michelle Bracht, Bernard Amegadzie, Don Griswold, Li Li and Yassine Amrani
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:9
  18. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a new infectious disease caused by a novel coronavirus that leads to deleterious pulmonary pathological features. Due to its high morbidity and mortality and widespr...

    Authors: David A Groneberg, Rolf Hilgenfeld and Peter Zabel
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:8
  19. The pathological hallmarks of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are inflammation of the small airways (bronchiolitis) and destruction of lung parenchyma (emphysema). These forms of disease arise fro...

    Authors: Xiaofei Wang, Christian Lytle and Paul M Quinton
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:7
  20. Epimorphin modulates epithelial morphogenesis in embryonic mouse organs. We previously suggested that epimorphin contributes to repair of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice via epithelium-mesenchyme ...

    Authors: Yasuhiro Terasaki, Yuh Fukuda, Moritaka Suga, Naoki Ikeguchi and Motohiro Takeya
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:6
  21. The intent of this study was to examine the recovery of individuals who had been hospitalized for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in the year following their discharge from the hospital. Parameters st...

    Authors: Lixin Xie, Youning Liu, Baoxing Fan, Yueyong Xiao, Qing Tian, Liangan Chen, Hong Zhao and Weijun Chen
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:5
  22. It has recently been suggested that RhoA plays an important role in the enhancement of the Ca2+ sensitization of smooth muscle contraction. In the present study, a participation of RhoA-mediated Ca2+ sensitizatio...

    Authors: Yoshihiko Chiba, Ayako Ueno, Koji Shinozaki, Hisao Takeyama, Shuji Nakazawa, Hiroyasu Sakai and Miwa Misawa
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:4
  23. Cough is the most common symptom presenting to doctors. The quality of cough (productive or wet vs dry) is used clinically as well as in epidemiology and clinical research. There is however no data on the vali...

    Authors: Bernadette Anne Chang, Justin Thomas Gaffney, Matthew Michael Eastburn, Joan Faoagali, Nancy C Cox and Ian Brent Masters
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:3
  24. The intratracheal instillation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa entrapped in agar beads in the mouse lung leads to chronic lung infection in susceptible mouse strains. As the infection generates a strong inflammatory re...

    Authors: André Dagenais, Diane Gosselin, Claudine Guilbault, Danuta Radzioch and Yves Berthiaume
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:2
  25. CpG-oligonucleotides (CpG-ODN), which induce signaling through Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), are currently under investigation as adjuvants in therapy against infections and cancer. CpG-ODN function as Th-1 adj...

    Authors: Daniel Droemann, Dirk Albrecht, Johannes Gerdes, Artur J Ulmer, Detlev Branscheid, Ekkehard Vollmer, Klaus Dalhoff, Peter Zabel and Torsten Goldmann
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:1
  26. Coccidioidomycosis or Valley Fever is caused by Coccidioides in Southwest US and Central America. Primary pulmonary infection is initiated by inhalation of air-borne arthroconidia. Since, lung is the first organ ...

    Authors: Shanjana Awasthi, D Mitchell Magee and Jacqueline J Coalson
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2004 5:28
  27. Non-neuronal cells, including those derived from lung, are reported to express nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). We examined nAChR subunit expression in short-term cultures of human airway cells deriv...

    Authors: Diane L Carlisle, Toni M Hopkins, Autumn Gaither-Davis, Michele J Silhanek, James D Luketich, Neil A Christie and Jill M Siegfried
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2004 5:27
  28. Microarrays are a powerful tool that have multiple applications both in clinical and cell biology arenas of common lung diseases. To exemplify how this tool can be useful, in this review, we will provide an ov...

    Authors: Argyris Tzouvelekis, George Patlakas and Demosthenes Bouros
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2004 5:26
  29. There is a controversy about the additional benefit of various supplemental interventions used in clinical practice to further enhance the effectiveness of respiratory rehabilitation in patients with Chronic o...

    Authors: Milo A Puhan, Holger J Schünemann, Martin Frey and Lucas M Bachmann
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2004 5:25
  30. Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ), a multifunctional cytokine, plays a crucial role in the accumulation of extracellular matrix components in lung fibrosis, where lung fibroblasts are considered to play a...

    Authors: Elisabetta A Renzoni, David J Abraham, Sarah Howat, Xu Shi-Wen, Piersante Sestini, George Bou-Gharios, Athol U Wells, Srihari Veeraraghavan, Andrew G Nicholson, Christopher P Denton, Andrew Leask, Jeremy D Pearson, Carol M Black, Kenneth I Welsh and Roland M du Bois
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2004 5:24
  31. Although in vitro studies have determined that the activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases is crucial to the activation of transcription factors and regulation of the production of proinflammator...

    Authors: Hui Su Lee, Hee Jae Kim, Chang Sook Moon, Young Hae Chong and Jihee Lee Kang
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2004 5:23
  32. Biologically variable ventilation (return of physiological variability in rate and tidal volume using a computer-controller) was compared to control mode ventilation with and without a recruitment manoeuvre – ...

    Authors: Duane J Funk, M Ruth Graham, Linda G Girling, James A Thliveris, Bruce M McManus, Elizabeth KY Walker, Edward S Rector, Craig Hillier, J Elliott Scott and W Alan C Mutch
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2004 5:22
  33. Previously, we demonstrated that OVA-loaded macrophages (OVA-Mφ) partially suppress OVA-induced airway manifestations of asthma in BALB/c mice. In vitro studies showed that OVA-Mφ start to produce IL-10 upon inte...

    Authors: Joost LM Vissers, Betty CAM van Esch, Prescilla V Jeurink, Gerard A Hofman and Antoon JM van Oosterhout
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2004 5:21
  34. Patients with asthma demonstrate circadian variations in the airway inflammation and lung function. Pinealectomy reduces the total inflammatory cell number in the asthmatic rat lung. We hypothesize that melato...

    Authors: FengMing Luo, XiaoJing Liu, ShuangQing Li, ChunTao Liu and ZengLi Wang
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2004 5:20
  35. The home is the predominant environment for exposure to many environmental irritants such as air pollutants and allergens. Exposure to common indoor irritants including volatile organic compounds, formaldehyde...

    Authors: Guicheng Zhang, Jeffery Spickett, Krassi Rumchev, Andy H Lee and Stephen Stick
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2004 5:19
  36. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major global health problem and is predicted to become the third most common cause of death by 2020. Apart from the important preventive steps of smoking cessa...

    Authors: David A Groneberg and K Fan Chung
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2004 5:18
  37. Many patients with persistent asthma can be controlled with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). However, a considerable proportion of patients remain symptomatic, despite the use of ICS. We present systematically e...

    Authors: Hannu Kankaanranta, Aarne Lahdensuo, Eeva Moilanen and Peter J Barnes
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2004 5:17
  38. Oxygen toxicity is a major cause of lung injury. The base excision repair pathway is one of the most important cellular protection mechanisms that responds to oxidative DNA damage. Lesion-specific DNA repair e...

    Authors: Ted M Kremer, Mikael L Rinne, Yi Xu, Xian Ming Chen and Mark R Kelley
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2004 5:16
  39. Considerable variation exists in the protocols used to induce hyperresponsiveness in murine models of allergic sensitisation. We examined the effect of varying the number of antigen exposures at challenge on t...

    Authors: Graeme R Zosky, Christophe von Garnier, Philip A Stumbles, Patrick G Holt, Peter D Sly and Debra J Turner
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2004 5:15
  40. Previous studies showing a strong relationship between Cheyne-Stokes respiration and the severity of left ventricular systolic dysfunction have usually been done in selected patient populations with lower age ...

    Authors: Lena Mared, Charles Cline, Leif Erhardt, Søren Berg and Bengt Midgren
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2004 5:14
  41. Xylitol is a 5-carbon sugar that can lower the airway surface salt concentration, thus enhancing innate immunity. We tested the safety and tolerability of aerosolized iso-osmotic xylitol in mice and human volu...

    Authors: Lakshmi Durairaj, Janice Launspach, Janet L Watt, Thomas R Businga, Joel N Kline, Peter S Thorne and Joseph Zabner
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2004 5:13
  42. Asthma is characterized by type 2 T-helper cell (Th2) inflammation, goblet cell hyperplasia, airway hyperreactivity, and airway fibrosis. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 or CCL2) and its receptor, CC...

    Authors: Laura L Koth, Madeleine W Rodriguez, Liu Xin Bernstein, Salina Chan, Xiaozhu Huang, Israel F Charo, Barrett J Rollins and David J Erle
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2004 5:12
  43. Hyperoxic exposures are often found in clinical settings of respiratory insufficient patients, although oxygen therapy (>50% O2) can result in the development of acute hyperoxic lung injury within a few days. Upo...

    Authors: Anne-Karin Hesse, Martina Dörger, Christian Kupatt and Fritz Krombach
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2004 5:11
  44. We studied the action of sodium metabisulphite on mucociliary transport in a frog palate epithelial injury model, hypothesizing that it may be useful for the study of mechanisms of airway injury. Sodium metabi...

    Authors: Darryl W O'Brien, Melanie I Morris, Jie Ding, J Gustavo Zayas, Shusheng Tai and Malcolm King
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2004 5:10
  45. Inhaled side-stream tobacco smoke brings in all of its harmful components impairing mechanisms that protect the airways and lungs. Chronic respiratory health consequences are a complex multi-step silent proces...

    Authors: J Gustavo Zayas, Darryl W O'Brien, Shusheng Tai, Jie Ding, Leonard Lim and Malcolm King
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2004 5:9

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