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  1. The clinical value of blood eosinophils and their stability in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains controversial. There are limited studies on association between the stability of blood eosino...

    Authors: Yanan Cui, Wenye Zhang, Yiming Ma, Zijie Zhan and Yan Chen
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:301
  2. Previous studies have determined the epigenetic association between DNA methylation and pulmonary function among various ethnics, whereas this association is largely unknown in Chinese adults. Thus, we aimed t...

    Authors: Tong Wang, Weijing Wang, Weilong Li, Haiping Duan, Chunsheng Xu, Xiaocao Tian and Dongfeng Zhang
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:300
  3. This study assessed the impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on overall hospitalizations for pulmonary embolism (PE) in France in comparison with previous years, and by COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 status.

    Authors: Pierre Tankere, Jonathan Cottenet, Pascale Tubert-Bitter, Anne-Sophie Mariet, Guillaume Beltramo, Jacques Cadranel, Lionel Piroth, Philippe Bonniaud and Catherine Quantin
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:298
  4. Despite the high disease burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and risk of acute COPD exacerbation, few COPD biomarkers are available. As developmental endothelial locus-1 (DEL-1) has been pro...

    Authors: Dong-Hyun Joo, Kyoung-Hee Lee, Chang-Hoon Lee, Jisu Woo, Jiyeon Kim, Seoung Ju Park, Chin Kook Rhee, Won-Yeon Lee, Dongil Park, Jae Seung Lee, Ki-Suck Jung, Kwang Ha Yoo and Chul-Gyu Yoo
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:297
  5. Cough hypersensitivity is a major characteristic feature associated with several types of cough, including chronic cough, but its underlying mechanisms remain to be fully understood. Inflammatory mediators, su...

    Authors: Al-Shaimaa A. Al-Kandery, Muddanna S. Rao and Ahmed Z. El-Hashim
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:296
  6. α1-Antitrypsin (AAT) is an acute phase glycoprotein, a multifunctional protein with proteinase inhibitory, anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective properties. Both preclinical and clinical experiences show that t...

    Authors: Tomoyuki Nakagiri, Sabine Wrenger, Kokilavani Sivaraman, Fabio Ius, Tobias Goecke, Patrick Zardo, Veronika Grau, Tobias Welte, Axel Haverich, Ann-Kathrin Knöfel and Sabina Janciauskiene
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:295
  7. Little attention has been paid to chest high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) patients so far, while a couple of small studies suggested that ...

    Authors: Aneta Kacprzak, Barbara Burakowska, Marcin Kurzyna, Anna Fijałkowska, Michał Florczyk, Maria Wieteska-Miłek, Szymon Darocha, Adam Torbicki and Monika Szturmowicz
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:293
  8. Pursed-lips breathing (PLB) is a technique to attenuate small airway collapse by regulating the expiratory flow. During mandatory ventilation, flow-controlled expiration (FLEX), which mimics the expiratory flo...

    Authors: Johannes Schmidt, Anna Martin, Christin Wenzel, Jonas Weber, Steffen Wirth and Stefan Schumann
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:292
  9. Cytochrome P450 epoxygenase 2J2 (CYP2J2) metabolizes arachidonic acid to epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), which exert anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, pro-proliferative, and antioxidant effects on the cardi...

    Authors: Yun Ding, Pengjie Tu, Yiyong Chen, Yangyun Huang, Xiaojie Pan and Wenshu Chen
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:291
  10. Pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (PPFE) is characterised by predominant upper lobe pleural and subpleural lung parenchymal fibrosis. Radiological PPFE-like lesion has been associated with various types of inte...

    Authors: Tomoyuki Fujisawa, Yasuoki Horiike, Ryoko Egashira, Hiromitsu Sumikawa, Tae Iwasawa, Shoichiro Matsushita, Hiroaki Sugiura, Kensuke Kataoka, Mikiko Hashisako, Hideki Yasui, Hironao Hozumi, Masato Karayama, Yuzo Suzuki, Kazuki Furuhashi, Noriyuki Enomoto, Yutaro Nakamura…
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:290
  11. For children and adults, the standard treatment for obstructive sleep apnea is the delivery of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Though effective, CPAP masks can be uncomfortable to patients, contrib...

    Authors: Kelvin Duong, Michelle Noga, Joanna E. MacLean, Warren H. Finlay and Andrew R. Martin
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:289
  12. Iron deficiency affects up to 50% of patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) but iron markers such as ferritin and serum iron are confounded by several non-disease related factors like acute inflam...

    Authors: Panagiota Xanthouli, Vivienne Theobald, Nicola Benjamin, Alberto M. Marra, Anna D’Agostino, Benjamin Egenlauf, Memoona Shaukat, Cao Ding, Antonio Cittadini, Eduardo Bossone, Maria Kögler, Ekkehard Grünig, Martina U. Muckenthaler and Christina A. Eichstaedt
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:288
  13. The mannitol test is an indirect bronchial challenge test widely used in diagnosing asthma. Response to the mannitol test correlates with the level of eosinophilic and mast cell airway inflammation, and a posi...

    Authors: Asger Sverrild, Joanna Leadbetter and Celeste Porsbjerg
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:287
  14. Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer. Epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an essential pathophysiological process in COPD and plays a...

    Authors: Xiaoshan Su, Junjie Chen, Xiaoping Lin, Xiaoyang Chen, Zhixing Zhu, Weijing Wu, Hai Lin, Jianming Wang, Xiangjia Ye and Yiming Zeng
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:286
  15. Although large advances have recently been made mapping out the cellular composition of lung tissue using single cell sequencing, the composition and distribution of the cellular elements within the lining flu...

    Authors: S. D. Pouwels, Janette K. Burgess, Erik Verschuuren and Dirk-Jan Slebos
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:285
  16. Somatic cells differentiated from patient-specific human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) could be a useful tool in human cell-based disease research. Hermansky–Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is an autosomal rece...

    Authors: Takahiro Suezawa, Shuhei Kanagaki, Yohei Korogi, Kazuhisa Nakao, Toyohiro Hirai, Koji Murakami, Masatoshi Hagiwara and Shimpei Gotoh
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:284
  17. Authors: Alexa Núñez, Irene Belmonte, Elena Miranda, Miriam Barrecheguren, Georgina Farago, Eduardo Loeb, Mònica Pons, Francisco Rodríguez-Frías, Pablo Gabriel-Medina, Esther Rodríguez, Joan Genescà, Marc Miravitlles and Cristina Esquinas
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:283

    The original article was published in Respiratory Research 2021 22:244

  18. The progressive fibrosing (PF) phenotype of interstitial lung disease (ILD) is characterised by worsening respiratory symptoms, lung function, and extent of fibrosis on high-resolution computed tomography. We ...

    Authors: Byoung Soo Kwon, Jooae Choe, Eun Jin Chae, Hee Sang Hwang, Yong-Gil Kim and Jin Woo Song
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:282
  19. This study examined whether BI113823, a novel selective kinin B1 receptor antagonist can reverse established pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), prevent right heart failure and death, which is critical for ...

    Authors: Dileep Reddy Rampa, Priya Murugesan, Honglu Chao, Huiying Feng, Wenxin Dai, Dongwon Lee, Anton Pekcec, Henri Doods and Dongmei Wu
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:281
  20. IL-35 subunit EBI3 is up-regulated in pulmonary fibrosis tissues. In this study, we investigated the pathological role of EBI3 in pulmonary fibrosis and dissected the underlying molecular mechanism.

    Authors: Donghong Chen, Guofeng Zheng, Qing Yang, Le Luo and Jinglian Shen
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:280
  21. In patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the relationship between short-term bronchodilator reversibility and longer-term response to bronchodilators is unclear. Here, we investigated whe...

    Authors: Claus F. Vogelmeier, Paul W. Jones, Edward M. Kerwin, Isabelle H. Boucot, François Maltais, Lee Tombs, Chris Compton, David A. Lipson and Leif H. Bjermer
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:279
  22. Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) is the most common and progressive form of the interstitial lung diseases, leading most patients to require lung transplants to survive. Despite the relatively well-defined ...

    Authors: Danforth A. Newton, Robyn G. Lottes, Rita M. Ryan, Demetri D. Spyropoulos and John E. Baatz
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:278
  23. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a progressive cystic lung disease with mortality driven primarily by respiratory failure. Patients with LAM frequently have respiratory infections, suggestive of a dysregulate...

    Authors: Julie Ng, Gustavo Pacheco-Rodriguez, Lesa Begley, Yvonne J. Huang, Sergio Poli, Mark A. Perrella, Ivan O. Rosas, Joel Moss and Souheil El-Chemaly
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:277
  24. Nocturnal desaturation is common in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and impacts disease exacerbation and prognosis. In our previous study, we developed a diagnostic algorithm to clas...

    Authors: Asuka Yoshizaki, Tatsuya Nagano, Shintaro Izumi, Teruaki Nishiuma, Kyosuke Nakata, Masatsugu Yamamoto, Yuichiro Yasuda, Daisuke Hazama, Kanoko Umezawa, Naoko Katsurada, Motoko Tachihara, Yoshihiro Nishimura and Kazuyuki Kobayashi
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:276
  25. Epidemiological data associate high levels of combustion-derived particulate matter (PM) with deleterious respiratory outcomes, but the mechanism underlying those outcomes remains elusive. It has been acknowle...

    Authors: Jeffrey N. Harding, Maureen Gross, Vivek Patel, Steven Potter and Stephania A. Cormier
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:275
  26. Dysbiosis of the gut microbiome is involved in the pathogenesis of various diseases, but the contribution of gut microbes to the progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is still poorly unde...

    Authors: Naijian Li, Zhouli Dai, Zhang Wang, Zhishan Deng, Jiahuan Zhang, Jinding Pu, Weitao Cao, Tianhui Pan, Yumin Zhou, Zhaowei Yang, Jing Li, Bing Li and Pixin Ran
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:274
  27. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a fatal lung disease with a significant unmet medical need. Development of transformational therapies for IPF is challenging in part to due to lack of robust predictive b...

    Authors: Pitchumani Sivakumar, Ron Ammar, John Ryan Thompson, Yi Luo, Denis Streltsov, Mary Porteous, Carly McCoubrey, Edward Cantu III, Michael F. Beers, Gabor Jarai and Jason D. Christie
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:273
  28. Beta-blocker therapies for cardiovascular comorbidities are often withheld in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) due to potential adverse effects on airway obstruction. We carried out a...

    Authors: Kenneth R. Chapman, Robert A. Wise, Benjamin M. Scirica, Deepak L. Bhatt, Sami Z. Daoud, Dan Lythgoe and Esther Garcia Gil
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:272
  29. In patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the maximum level of diaphragm excursion (DEmax) is correlated with dynamic lung hyperinflation and exercise tolerance. This study aimed to elucidate...

    Authors: Masashi Shiraishi, Yuji Higashimoto, Ryuji Sugiya, Hiroki Mizusawa, Yu Takeda, Shuhei Fujita, Osamu Nishiyama, Shintarou Kudo, Tamotsu Kimura, Yasutaka Chiba, Kanji Fukuda, Yuji Tohda and Hisako Matsumoto
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:271
  30. Two antifibrotic drugs, pirfenidone and nintedanib, are licensed for the treatment of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). However, there is neither evidence from prospective data nor a guideline...

    Authors: Pavo Marijic, Larissa Schwarzkopf, Lars Schwettmann, Thomas Ruhnke, Franziska Trudzinski and Michael Kreuter
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:268
  31. The non-cancerous functions of Akt in the airway are understudied. In some tissues, Akt phosphorylates and activates endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) to produce nitric oxide (NO) that has anti-inflamma...

    Authors: Indiwari Gopallawa, Li Eon Kuek, Nithin D. Adappa, James N. Palmer and Robert J. Lee
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:267
  32. Over 300 million people in the world live with asthma, resulting in 500,000 annual global deaths with future increases expected. It is estimated that around 50–80% of asthma exacerbations are due to viral infe...

    Authors: Yechan Kim, Vincent Hou, Ryan D. Huff, Jennifer A. Aguiar, Spencer Revill, Nicholas Tiessen, Quynh Cao, Matthew S. Miller, Mark D. Inman, Kjetil Ask, Andrew C. Doxey and Jeremy A. Hirota
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:266
  33. αv integrins, key regulators of transforming growth factor-β activation and fibrogenesis in in vivo models of pulmonary fibrosis, are expressed on abnormal epithelial cells (αvβ6) and fibroblasts (αvβ1) in fibrot...

    Authors: Martin L. Decaris, Johanna R. Schaub, Chun Chen, Jacob Cha, Gail G. Lee, Megi Rexhepaj, Steve S. Ho, Vikram Rao, Megan M. Marlow, Prerna Kotak, Erine H. Budi, Lisa Hooi, Jianfeng Wu, Marina Fridlib, Shamra P. Martin, Shaoyi Huang…
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:265
  34. Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a common and potentially life-threatening complication for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. However, there is a lack of clear prognostic factors in rheumatoid arthritis-as...

    Authors: Meihua Qiu, Jing Jiang, Xueyuan Nian, Yutie Wang, Pengfei Yu, Jie Song and Shenchun Zou
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:264
  35. Inhalation of fungal spores is a strong risk factor for severe asthma and experimentally leads to development of airway mycosis and asthma-like disease in mice. However, in addition to fungal spores, humans ar...

    Authors: Yuying Zeng, Yun Zhang, Xinyan Huang, Lizhen Song, Katherine Polsky, Yifan Wu, Farrah Kheradmand, Yubiao Guo, Linda K. Green, David B. Corry and John M. Knight
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:263
  36. Prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) signaling via prostaglandin D2 receptor 2 (DP2) contributes to atopic and non-atopic asthma. Inhibiting DP2 has shown therapeutic benefit in certain subsets of asthma patients, improving e...

    Authors: Saskia Carstensen, Christina Gress, Veit J. Erpenbeck, Shamsah D. Kazani, Jens M. Hohlfeld, David A. Sandham and Meike Müller
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:262
  37. Triple therapy with inhaled corticosteroids/long-acting muscarinic antagonists/long-acting β2-agonists (ICS/LAMA/LABA) is recommended for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with continued ...

    Authors: Omar Usmani, Nicolas Roche, Ezanul Wahab, Samuel Israel, Martin Jenkins, Roopa Trivedi, Paul Dorinsky and Magnus Aurivillius
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:261
  38. The “can do, do do” concept aims at identifying subgroups among persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Following a two-dimensional categorization, individuals are binarily classified with r...

    Authors: J. Carl, K. Schultz, T. Janssens, A. von Leupoldt, K. Pfeifer and W. Geidl
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:260
  39. Health-related quality of life (HRQL) is impaired in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). HRQL is often measured using the St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) despite the development of...

    Authors: Thomas Skovhus Prior, Nils Hoyer, Saher Burhan Shaker, Jesper Rømhild Davidsen, Ole Hilberg, Haridarshan Patel and Elisabeth Bendstrup
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:259
  40. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a key contributing factor to poor survival in lung transplantation recipients. Mitochondrial dysfunction is recognized as a critical mediator in the pathogenesis of diabetic lung isch...

    Authors: Tao Jiang, Tianhua Liu, Xijin Deng, Wengang Ding, Ziyong Yue, Wanchao Yang, Xiangqi Lv and Wenzhi Li
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:258
  41. Hospitalizations are common among patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). We investigated the impact of hospitalizations on outcomes in patients with IPF.

    Authors: Hyun J. Kim, Laurie D. Snyder, Ayodeji Adegunsoye, Megan L. Neely, Shaun Bender, Eric S. White, Craig S. Conoscenti and Mary E. Strek
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:257
  42. For years, paediatric critical care practitioners used the adult American European Consensus Conference (AECC) and revised Berlin Definition (BD) for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) to study the epi...

    Authors: Michelle Rudolph, Jefta van Dijk, Pauline de Jager, Sandra K. Dijkstra, Johannes G. M. Burgerhof, Robert G. T. Blokpoel and Martin C. J. Kneyber
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:256
  43. There is relatively little published on the effects of COVID-19 on respiratory physiology, particularly breathing patterns. We sought to determine if there were lasting detrimental effect following hospital di...

    Authors: James A. Stockley, Eyas A. Alhuthail, Andrew M. Coney, Dhruv Parekh, Tarekegn Geberhiwot, Nandan Gautum, Shyam C. Madathil and Brendan G. Cooper
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:255
  44. Iron and steel industry workers are exposed to high levels of inhalable dust particles that contain various elements, including metals, and cause occupational lung diseases. We aim to assess the relationship b...

    Authors: Nan Kong, Guoshun Chen, Haitao Wang, Jianyu Li, Shuzhen Yin, Xue Cao, Tao Wang, Xin Li, Yanan Li, Huanling Zhang, Shanfa Yu, Jinglong Tang, Akshay Sood, Yuxin Zheng and Shuguang Leng
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:254
  45. During flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FOB) the arterial partial pressure of oxygen can drop, increasing the risk for respiratory failure. To avoid desaturation episodes during the procedure several oxygenat...

    Authors: Corrado Pelaia, Andrea Bruni, Eugenio Garofalo, Serena Rovida, Eugenio Arrighi, Gianmaria Cammarota, Paolo Navalesi, Girolamo Pelaia and Federico Longhini
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:253
  46. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness is a typical, but non-specific feature of cough variant asthma (CVA). This study aimed to determine whether bronchial hyperresponsiveness may be considered as a predictor of CVA i...

    Authors: Aleksandra Rybka-Fraczek, Marta Dabrowska, Elzbieta M. Grabczak, Katarzyna Bialek-Gosk, Karolina Klimowicz, Olga Truba and Rafal Krenke
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:252

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