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  1. The intratracheal instillation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa entrapped in agar beads in the mouse lung leads to chronic lung infection in susceptible mouse strains. As the infection generates a strong inflammatory re...

    Authors: André Dagenais, Diane Gosselin, Claudine Guilbault, Danuta Radzioch and Yves Berthiaume
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:2
  2. CpG-oligonucleotides (CpG-ODN), which induce signaling through Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), are currently under investigation as adjuvants in therapy against infections and cancer. CpG-ODN function as Th-1 adj...

    Authors: Daniel Droemann, Dirk Albrecht, Johannes Gerdes, Artur J Ulmer, Detlev Branscheid, Ekkehard Vollmer, Klaus Dalhoff, Peter Zabel and Torsten Goldmann
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2005 6:1
  3. Coccidioidomycosis or Valley Fever is caused by Coccidioides in Southwest US and Central America. Primary pulmonary infection is initiated by inhalation of air-borne arthroconidia. Since, lung is the first organ ...

    Authors: Shanjana Awasthi, D Mitchell Magee and Jacqueline J Coalson
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2004 5:28
  4. Non-neuronal cells, including those derived from lung, are reported to express nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). We examined nAChR subunit expression in short-term cultures of human airway cells deriv...

    Authors: Diane L Carlisle, Toni M Hopkins, Autumn Gaither-Davis, Michele J Silhanek, James D Luketich, Neil A Christie and Jill M Siegfried
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2004 5:27
  5. Microarrays are a powerful tool that have multiple applications both in clinical and cell biology arenas of common lung diseases. To exemplify how this tool can be useful, in this review, we will provide an ov...

    Authors: Argyris Tzouvelekis, George Patlakas and Demosthenes Bouros
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2004 5:26
  6. There is a controversy about the additional benefit of various supplemental interventions used in clinical practice to further enhance the effectiveness of respiratory rehabilitation in patients with Chronic o...

    Authors: Milo A Puhan, Holger J Schünemann, Martin Frey and Lucas M Bachmann
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2004 5:25
  7. Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ), a multifunctional cytokine, plays a crucial role in the accumulation of extracellular matrix components in lung fibrosis, where lung fibroblasts are considered to play a...

    Authors: Elisabetta A Renzoni, David J Abraham, Sarah Howat, Xu Shi-Wen, Piersante Sestini, George Bou-Gharios, Athol U Wells, Srihari Veeraraghavan, Andrew G Nicholson, Christopher P Denton, Andrew Leask, Jeremy D Pearson, Carol M Black, Kenneth I Welsh and Roland M du Bois
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2004 5:24
  8. Although in vitro studies have determined that the activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases is crucial to the activation of transcription factors and regulation of the production of proinflammator...

    Authors: Hui Su Lee, Hee Jae Kim, Chang Sook Moon, Young Hae Chong and Jihee Lee Kang
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2004 5:23
  9. Biologically variable ventilation (return of physiological variability in rate and tidal volume using a computer-controller) was compared to control mode ventilation with and without a recruitment manoeuvre – ...

    Authors: Duane J Funk, M Ruth Graham, Linda G Girling, James A Thliveris, Bruce M McManus, Elizabeth KY Walker, Edward S Rector, Craig Hillier, J Elliott Scott and W Alan C Mutch
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2004 5:22
  10. Previously, we demonstrated that OVA-loaded macrophages (OVA-Mφ) partially suppress OVA-induced airway manifestations of asthma in BALB/c mice. In vitro studies showed that OVA-Mφ start to produce IL-10 upon inte...

    Authors: Joost LM Vissers, Betty CAM van Esch, Prescilla V Jeurink, Gerard A Hofman and Antoon JM van Oosterhout
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2004 5:21
  11. Patients with asthma demonstrate circadian variations in the airway inflammation and lung function. Pinealectomy reduces the total inflammatory cell number in the asthmatic rat lung. We hypothesize that melato...

    Authors: FengMing Luo, XiaoJing Liu, ShuangQing Li, ChunTao Liu and ZengLi Wang
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2004 5:20
  12. The home is the predominant environment for exposure to many environmental irritants such as air pollutants and allergens. Exposure to common indoor irritants including volatile organic compounds, formaldehyde...

    Authors: Guicheng Zhang, Jeffery Spickett, Krassi Rumchev, Andy H Lee and Stephen Stick
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2004 5:19
  13. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major global health problem and is predicted to become the third most common cause of death by 2020. Apart from the important preventive steps of smoking cessa...

    Authors: David A Groneberg and K Fan Chung
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2004 5:18
  14. Many patients with persistent asthma can be controlled with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). However, a considerable proportion of patients remain symptomatic, despite the use of ICS. We present systematically e...

    Authors: Hannu Kankaanranta, Aarne Lahdensuo, Eeva Moilanen and Peter J Barnes
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2004 5:17
  15. Oxygen toxicity is a major cause of lung injury. The base excision repair pathway is one of the most important cellular protection mechanisms that responds to oxidative DNA damage. Lesion-specific DNA repair e...

    Authors: Ted M Kremer, Mikael L Rinne, Yi Xu, Xian Ming Chen and Mark R Kelley
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2004 5:16
  16. Considerable variation exists in the protocols used to induce hyperresponsiveness in murine models of allergic sensitisation. We examined the effect of varying the number of antigen exposures at challenge on t...

    Authors: Graeme R Zosky, Christophe von Garnier, Philip A Stumbles, Patrick G Holt, Peter D Sly and Debra J Turner
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2004 5:15
  17. Previous studies showing a strong relationship between Cheyne-Stokes respiration and the severity of left ventricular systolic dysfunction have usually been done in selected patient populations with lower age ...

    Authors: Lena Mared, Charles Cline, Leif Erhardt, Søren Berg and Bengt Midgren
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2004 5:14
  18. Xylitol is a 5-carbon sugar that can lower the airway surface salt concentration, thus enhancing innate immunity. We tested the safety and tolerability of aerosolized iso-osmotic xylitol in mice and human volu...

    Authors: Lakshmi Durairaj, Janice Launspach, Janet L Watt, Thomas R Businga, Joel N Kline, Peter S Thorne and Joseph Zabner
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2004 5:13
  19. Asthma is characterized by type 2 T-helper cell (Th2) inflammation, goblet cell hyperplasia, airway hyperreactivity, and airway fibrosis. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 or CCL2) and its receptor, CC...

    Authors: Laura L Koth, Madeleine W Rodriguez, Liu Xin Bernstein, Salina Chan, Xiaozhu Huang, Israel F Charo, Barrett J Rollins and David J Erle
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2004 5:12
  20. Hyperoxic exposures are often found in clinical settings of respiratory insufficient patients, although oxygen therapy (>50% O2) can result in the development of acute hyperoxic lung injury within a few days. Upo...

    Authors: Anne-Karin Hesse, Martina Dörger, Christian Kupatt and Fritz Krombach
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2004 5:11
  21. We studied the action of sodium metabisulphite on mucociliary transport in a frog palate epithelial injury model, hypothesizing that it may be useful for the study of mechanisms of airway injury. Sodium metabi...

    Authors: Darryl W O'Brien, Melanie I Morris, Jie Ding, J Gustavo Zayas, Shusheng Tai and Malcolm King
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2004 5:10
  22. Inhaled side-stream tobacco smoke brings in all of its harmful components impairing mechanisms that protect the airways and lungs. Chronic respiratory health consequences are a complex multi-step silent proces...

    Authors: J Gustavo Zayas, Darryl W O'Brien, Shusheng Tai, Jie Ding, Leonard Lim and Malcolm King
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2004 5:9
  23. Fueled by the promise of regenerative medicine, currently there is unprecedented interest in stem cells. Furthermore, there have been revolutionary, but somewhat controversial, advances in our understanding of...

    Authors: Isabel P Neuringer and Scott H Randell
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2004 5:6
  24. The anti-inflammatory effects of the selective phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors cilostazol (PDE 3), RO 20-1724 (PDE 4) and sildenafil (PDE 5) were examined in a murine model of allergic asthma. These compoun...

    Authors: Robert A Clayton, Colin AJ Dick, Alison Mackenzie, Michiaki Nagasawa, Deirdre Galbraith, Stuart F Hastings and Simon J MacKenzie
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2004 5:4
  25. The relative contributions of the cytotoxic phenotype of P. aeruginosa expressing type III secretory toxins and an immunocompromised condition lacking normal Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling in the pathogene...

    Authors: Karine Faure, Teiji Sawa, Temitayo Ajayi, Junichi Fujimoto, Kiyoshi Moriyama, Nobuaki Shime and Jeanine P Wiener-Kronish
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2004 5:1
  26. C57BL/6 mice have attenuated allergic airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) when compared with Balb/c mice but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. SP-D, an innate immune molecule with potent immunosuppressive...

    Authors: Elena N Atochina, Michael F Beers, Yaniv Tomer, Seth T Scanlon, Scott J Russo, Reynold A Panettieri Jr and Angela Haczku
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2003 4:15
  27. Platelets are thought to play a role in a variety of inflammatory conditions in the lung, some of which may lead to fibrosis. In the current study we tested the hypothesis that whole platelets and platelet lys...

    Authors: Ulrika Zagai, Karin Fredriksson, Stephen I Rennard, Joachim Lundahl and C Magnus Sköld
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2003 4:13
  28. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by incompletely reversible airflow obstruction associated with inflammation in which monocytes/macrophages are the predominant inflammatory cells. ...

    Authors: Ruta Aldonyte, Lennart Jansson, Eeva Piitulainen and Sabina Janciauskiene
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2003 4:11
  29. Pollens are important triggers for allergic asthma and seasonal rhinitis, and proteases released by major allergenic pollens can injure airway epithelial cells in vitro. Disruption of mucosal epithelial integrity...

    Authors: Mark J Raftery, Rohit G Saldanha, Carolyn L Geczy and Rakesh K Kumar
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2003 4:10
  30. γδ T cells have an important immunoregulatory and effector function through cytokine release. They are involved in the responses to Gram-negative bacterium and in protection of lung epithelium integrity. On th...

    Authors: Salvador Raga, M Rosa Julià, Catalina Crespí, Joan Figuerola, Natalia Martínez, Joan Milà and Núria Matamoros
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2003 4:9
  31. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), an inducible stress protein, confers cytoprotection against oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo. In addition to its physiological role in heme degradation, HO-1 may influence a numbe...

    Authors: Dirk-Jan Slebos, Stefan W Ryter and Augustine MK Choi
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2003 4:7
  32. Genes encoding cytokine mediators are prime candidates for genetic analysis in conditions with T-helper (Th) cell disease driven imbalance. Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) is a predominantly Th2 mediated d...

    Authors: Panagiota Latsi, Panagiotis Pantelidis, Dimitris Vassilakis, Hiroe Sato, Kenneth I Welsh and Roland M du Bois
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2003 4:6
  33. Lung morphogenesis is stereotypic, both for lobation and for the first several generations of airways, implying mechanistic control by a well conserved, genetically hardwired developmental program. This progra...

    Authors: David Warburton, Saverio Bellusci, Pierre-Marie Del Moral, Vesa Kaartinen, Matt Lee, Denise Tefft and Wei Shi
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2003 4:5
  34. The link between eosinophils and the development of airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in asthma is still controversial. This question was assessed in a murine model of asthma in which we performed a dose rangin...

    Authors: Mark A Birrell, Cliff H Battram, Paul Woodman, Kerryn McCluskie and Maria G Belvisi
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2003 4:2
  35. Several physiological adaptations occur in the respiratory muscles in rodent models of elastase-induced emphysema. Although the contractile properties of the diaphragm are altered in a way that suggests expres...

    Authors: Dong Kwan Kim, Jianliang Zhu, Benjamin W Kozyak, James M Burkman, Neal A Rubinstein, Edward B Lankford, Hansell H Stedman, Taitan Nguyen, Sanford Levine and Joseph B Shrager
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2003 4:3
  36. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by a chronic inflammatory process, in which the pro-inflammatory cytokine Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-α is considered to play a role. In the presen...

    Authors: Mehmet Küçükaycan, Michiel Van Krugten, Herman-Jan Pennings, Tom WJ Huizinga, Wim A Buurman, Mieke A Dentener and Emiel FM Wouters
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2002 3:28
  37. The predictive role of many cytokines and adhesion molecules has not been studied systematically in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).

    Authors: Panagiotis Agouridakis, Despina Kyriakou, Michael G Alexandrakis, Athanasios Prekates, Kostas Perisinakis, Nikolaos Karkavitsas and Demosthenes Bouros
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2002 3:27

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