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  1. Abnormal apoptotic events in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) subvert cellular homeostasis and may play a primary role in its pathogenesis. However, studies in human subjects are limited.

    Authors: Marianna Siganaki, Anastasios V Koutsopoulos, Eirini Neofytou, Eleni Vlachaki, Maria Psarrou, Nikolaos Soulitzis, Nikolaos Pentilas, Sophia Schiza, Nikolaos M Siafakas and Eleni G Tzortzaki
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2010 11:46
  2. Abnormal immune responses are believed to be highly relevant in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Dendritic cells provide a critical checkpoint for immunity by their capacity to...

    Authors: Robert Vassallo, Paula R Walters, Jeffrey Lamont, Theodore J Kottom, Eunhee S Yi and Andrew H Limper
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2010 11:45
  3. Previous studies of the natural history of alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency are mostly based on highly selected patients. The aim of this study was to analyse the mortality of PiZZ individuals.

    Authors: Hanan A Tanash, Peter M Nilsson, Jan-Åke Nilsson and Eeva Piitulainen
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2010 11:44
  4. Exhaled nitric oxide is a non-invasive marker of airway inflammation and a portable analyser, the NIOX MINO (Aerocrine AB, Solna, Sweden), is now available. This study aimed to assess the reproducibility of th...

    Authors: Anna Selby, Bernie Clayton, Jane Grundy, Katy Pike, Kirsty Drew, Abid Raza, Ramesh Kurukulaaratchy, S Hasan Arshad and Graham Roberts
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2010 11:43
  5. We analyzed serial concentrations of multiple inflammatory mediators from serum and induced sputum obtained from patients with stable COPD and controls. The objective was to determine which proteins could be u...

    Authors: Shawn D Aaron, Katherine L Vandemheen, Timothy Ramsay, Chun Zhang, Zafrira Avnur, Tania Nikolcheva and Anthony Quinn
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2010 11:41
  6. Little is known about the influencing potential of specific characteristics on lung function in different populations. The aim of this analysis was to determine whether lung function determinants differ betwee...

    Authors: Eva Schnabel, Chih-Mei Chen, Beate Koch, Stefan Karrasch, Rudolf A Jörres, Torsten Schäfer, Claus Vogelmeier, Ralf Ewert, Christoph Schäper, Henry Völzke, Anne Obst, Stephan B Felix, H-Erich Wichmann, Sven Gläser and Joachim Heinrich
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2010 11:40
  7. Basic and clinical studies suggest that hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is the neuroendocrine-immnue pathway that functionally regulates the chronic inflammatory disease including asthma. Our previou...

    Authors: Shui-Juan Zhang, Yang-Mei Deng, Yi-Liang Zhu, Xin-Wei Dong, Jun-Xia Jiang and Qiang-Min Xie
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2010 11:39
  8. Baroreflex allows to reduce sudden rises or falls of arterial pressure through parallel RR interval fluctuations induced by autonomic nervous system. During spontaneous breathing, the application of positive e...

    Authors: Andry Van de Louw, Claire Médigue, Yves Papelier and François Cottin
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2010 11:38
  9. Early diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension (PH) in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) has potential prognostic and therapeutic implications but can be difficult due to the lack of specific clinical manifestati...

    Authors: Kyung-Hee Kim, Fabien Maldonado, Jay H Ryu, Patrick W Eiken, Thomas E Hartman, Brian J Bartholmai, Paul A Decker and Eunhee S Yi
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2010 11:37
  10. Cigarette smoking is an important risk factor for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Chymase has been shown to function in the enzymatic production of angiot...

    Authors: Tao Wang, Su-Xia Han, Shang-Fu Zhang, Yun-Ye Ning, Lei Chen, Ya-Juan Chen, Guang-Ming He, Dan Xu, Jin An, Ting Yang, Xiao-Hong Zhang and Fu-Qiang Wen
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2010 11:36
  11. Dendritic cells (DC) linking innate and adaptive immune responses are present in human lungs, but the characterization of different subsets and their role in COPD pathogenesis remain to be elucidated. The aim ...

    Authors: Geert R Van Pottelberge, Ken R Bracke, Ingel K Demedts, Kim De Rijck, Susanne M Reinartz, Cornelis M van Drunen, Geert M Verleden, Frank E Vermassen, Guy F Joos and Guy G Brusselle
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2010 11:35
  12. Metabolites of arachidonic acid such as prostacyclin (PGI2) have been shown to participate in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis by inhibiting the expression of pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic mediators. In...

    Authors: Yuanjue Zhu, Yong Liu, Weixun Zhou, Ruolan Xiang, Lei Jiang, Kewu Huang, Yu Xiao, Zijian Guo and Jinming Gao
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2010 11:34
  13. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, developed as promising anti-tumor drugs, exhibit their anti-inflammatory properties due to their effects on reduction of inflammatory cytokines.

    Authors: Yun-Feng Ni, Jian Wang, Xiao-Long Yan, Feng Tian, Jin-Bo Zhao, Yun-Jie Wang and Tao Jiang
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2010 11:33
  14. Inflammatory lung diseases are a major morbidity factor in children. Therefore, novel strategies for early detection of inflammatory lung diseases are of high interest. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is re...

    Authors: Veronica Marcos, Phillip Latzin, Andreas Hector, Sebastian Sonanini, Florian Hoffmann, Martin Lacher, Barbara Koller, Philip Bufler, Thomas Nicolai, Dominik Hartl and Matthias Griese
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2010 11:32
  15. Pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive and lethal disorder. Although the precise mechanisms of pulmonary fibrosis are not fully understood, oxidant/antioxidant and Th1/Th2 balances may play an important role in m...

    Authors: Norihiro Kikuchi, Yukio Ishii, Yuko Morishima, Yuichi Yageta, Norihiro Haraguchi, Ken Itoh, Masayuki Yamamoto and Nobuyuki Hizawa
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2010 11:31
  16. Numerous studies have demonstrated associations between genetic markers and COPD, but results have been inconsistent. One reason may be heterogeneity in disease definition. Unsupervised learning approaches may...

    Authors: Michael H Cho, George R Washko, Thomas J Hoffmann, Gerard J Criner, Eric A Hoffman, Fernando J Martinez, Nan Laird, John J Reilly and Edwin K Silverman
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2010 11:30
  17. Anxiety in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with self-reported disability. The purpose of this study is to determine whether there is an association between anxiety and ...

    Authors: Nicholas D Giardino, Jeffrey L Curtis, Adin-Cristian Andrei, Vincent S Fan, Joshua O Benditt, Mark Lyubkin, Keith Naunheim, Gerard Criner, Barry Make, Robert A Wise, Susan K Murray, Alfred P Fishman, Frank C Sciurba, Israel Liberzon and Fernando J Martinez
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2010 11:29
  18. Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airway that is characterized by a Th2-type of immune response with increasing evidence for involvement of Th17 cells. The role of IL-6 in promoting effector T ce...

    Authors: Wendy A Neveu, Jenna L Allard, Danielle M Raymond, Lorraine M Bourassa, Stephanie M Burns, Janice Y Bunn, Charles G Irvin, David A Kaminsky and Mercedes Rincon
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2010 11:28
  19. Previous experimental studies have shown that injurious mechanical ventilation has a direct effect on pulmonary and systemic immune responses. How these responses are propagated or attenuated is a matter of sp...

    Authors: Jesús Villar, Nuria E Cabrera, Milena Casula, Carlos Flores, Francisco Valladares, Lucio Díaz-Flores, Mercedes Muros, Arthur S Slutsky and Robert M Kacmarek
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2010 11:27
  20. GSK256066 is a selective phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor that can be given by inhalation, minimising the potential for side effects. We evaluated the effects of GSK256066 on airway responses to allergen challeng...

    Authors: Dave Singh, Frank Petavy, Alex J Macdonald, Aili L Lazaar and Brian J O'Connor
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2010 11:26
  21. A strong genetic influence by the MHC class II region has been reported in sarcoidosis, however in many studies with different results. This may possibly be caused by actual differences between distinct ethnic...

    Authors: Johan Grunewald, Boel Brynedal, Pernilla Darlington, Magnus Nisell, Kerstin Cederlund, Jan Hillert and Anders Eklund
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2010 11:25
  22. Lung cancer often develops in association with chronic pulmonary inflammatory diseases with an influx of neutrophils. More detailed information on inflammatory pathways and the role of neutrophils herein is a ...

    Authors: Nejla Güngör, Jeroen LA Pennings, Ad M Knaapen, Roland K Chiu, Marco Peluso, Roger WL Godschalk and Frederik J Van Schooten
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2010 11:24
  23. Atopic and non-atopic wheezing may be caused by different etiologies: while eosinophils are more important in atopic asthmatic wheezers, neutrophils are predominantly found in BAL samples of young children wit...

    Authors: Leonardo A Pinto, Martin Depner, Norman Klopp, Thomas Illig, Christian Vogelberg, Erika von Mutius and Michael Kabesch
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2010 11:23
  24. The relationship between airway structural changes (remodeling) and airways hyperresponsiveness (AHR) is unclear. Asthma guidelines suggest treating persistent asthma with inhaled corticosteroids and long acti...

    Authors: Erik P Riesenfeld, Michael J Sullivan, John A Thompson-Figueroa, Hans C Haverkamp, Lennart K Lundblad, Jason HT Bates and Charles G Irvin
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2010 11:22
  25. Transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1)-mediated epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) of alveolar epithelial cells (AEC) may contribute to lung fibrosis. Since PPARγ ligands have been shown to inhibit fibrob...

    Authors: Xiahui Tan, Hayat Dagher, Craig A Hutton and Jane E Bourke
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2010 11:21
  26. Vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) exposure is a cause of occupational bronchitis and airway fibrosis. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a ubiquitous pathogen that causes airway inflammation. It is unknown whether indi...

    Authors: Elizabeth A Turpin, Aurita Antao-Menezes, Mark F Cesta, James B Mangum, Duncan G Wallace, Edilberto Bermudez and James C Bonner
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2010 11:20
  27. Liver × receptor α (LXRα) and β (LXRβ) are members of the nuclear receptor super family of ligand-activated transcription factors, a super family which includes the perhaps better known glucocorticoid receptor...

    Authors: Concetta Crisafulli, Emanuela Mazzon, Irene Paterniti, Maria Galuppo, Placido Bramanti and Salvatore Cuzzocrea
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2010 11:19
  28. Lung cancer is a very frequent and lethal tumor with an identifiable risk population. Cytological analysis and chest X-ray failed to reduce mortality, and CT screenings are still controversially discussed. Rec...

    Authors: Petra Leidinger, Andreas Keller, Sabrina Heisel, Nicole Ludwig, Stefanie Rheinheimer, Veronika Klein, Claudia Andres, Andrea Staratschek-Jox, Jürgen Wolf, Erich Stoelben, Bernhard Stephan, Ingo Stehle, Jürg Hamacher, Hanno Huwer, Hans-Peter Lenhof and Eckart Meese
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2010 11:18
  29. The CC-chemokine receptor-3 (CCR3) has emerged as a target molecule for pharmacological intervention in allergic inflammation.

    Authors: Lennart Greiff, Cecilia Ahlström-Emanuelsson, Ash Bahl, Thomas Bengtsson, Kerstin Dahlström, Jonas Erjefält, Henrik Widegren and Morgan Andersson
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2010 11:17
  30. No effective treatment for acute lung injury and fibrosis currently exists. Aim of this study was to investigate the time-dependent effect of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMDMSCs) on bleomycin (...

    Authors: Shin-Hwa Lee, An-Soo Jang, Young-Eun Kim, Ji-Yeon Cha, Tae-Hoon Kim, Seok Jung, Seong-Kyu Park, You-Kyoung Lee, Jong-Ho Won, Yong-Hoon Kim and Choon-Sik Park
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2010 11:16
  31. Early-life respiratory viral infections, notably with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), increase the risk of subsequent development of childhood asthma. The purpose of this study was to assess whether early-l...

    Authors: Jessica S Siegle, Nicole Hansbro, Cristan Herbert, Helene F Rosenberg, Joseph B Domachowske, Kelly L Asquith, Paul S Foster and Rakesh K Kumar
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2010 11:14
  32. Nicotine plays an important role in cigarette-smoke-associated airway disease. The present study was designed to examine if nicotine could induce airway hyperresponsiveness through kinin receptors, and if so, ...

    Authors: Yuan Xu, Yaping Zhang and Lars-Olaf Cardell
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2010 11:13
  33. Although studies show that maternal smoking during pregnancy increases the risks of respiratory outcomes in childhood, evidence concerning the effects of household environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure re...

    Authors: Ching-Hui Tsai, Jiun-Hau Huang, Bing-Fang Hwang and Yungling L Lee
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2010 11:11
  34. Acute exacerbations contribute to the morbidity and mortality associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This proof-of-concept study evaluates whether intermittent pulsed moxifloxacin treatm...

    Authors: Sanjay Sethi, Paul W Jones, Marlize Schmitt Theron, Marc Miravitlles, Ethan Rubinstein, Jadwiga A Wedzicha and Robert Wilson
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2010 11:10

    The Correction to this article has been published in Respiratory Research 2010 11:88

  35. Previous histological and imaging studies have shown the presence of variability in the degree of bronchoconstriction of airways sampled at different locations in the lung (i.e., heterogeneity). Heterogeneity ...

    Authors: Peter B Noble, Robert A McLaughlin, Adrian R West, Sven Becker, Julian J Armstrong, Peter K McFawn, Peter R Eastwood, David R Hillman, David D Sampson and Howard W Mitchell
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2010 11:9
  36. The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) Phase One showed large worldwide variations in the prevalence of symptoms of asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis and eczema, up to 10 to 20 fold bet...

    Authors: M Innes Asher, Alistair W Stewart, Javier Mallol, Stephen Montefort, Christopher KW Lai, Nadia Aït-Khaled and Joseph Odhiambo
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2010 11:8
  37. Air pollutant exposure has been linked to a rise in wheezing illnesses. Clinical data highlight that exposure to mainstream tobacco smoke (MS) and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) as well as exposure to diese...

    Authors: Tania Maes, Sharen Provoost, Ellen A Lanckacker, Didier D Cataldo, Jeroen AJ Vanoirbeek, Benoit Nemery, Kurt G Tournoy and Guy F Joos
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2010 11:7
  38. Staphylococcus aureus releases virulence factors (VF) that may impair the innate protective functions of airway cells. The aim of this study was to determine whether a long-acting β2 adrenergic receptor agonist (...

    Authors: Jean-Marie Zahm, Franck Delavoie, Férial Toumi, Béatrice Nawrocki-Raby, Claire Kileztky, Jean Michel, Gérard Balossier, Malcolm Johnson, Christelle Coraux and Philippe Birembaut
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2010 11:6
  39. The discrepancy between functional and inflammatory airway response to ozone has been reported in normal subjects, but few data are available for stable asthmatics regularly treated with inhaled corticosteroids.

    Authors: Barbara Vagaggini, Maria Laura E Bartoli, Silvana Cianchetti, Francesco Costa, Elena Bacci, Federico L Dente, Antonella Di Franco, Laura Malagrinò and Pierluigi Paggiaro
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2010 11:5
  40. Burkholderia cenocepacia, an opportunistic pathogen that causes lung infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, is associated with rapid and usually fatal lung deterioration due to necrotizing pneumonia and sep...

    Authors: Luiz G Cunha Jr, Maria-Cristina Assis, Gloria-Beatriz Machado, Ana P Assef, Elizabeth A Marques, Robson S Leão, Alessandra M Saliba and Maria-Cristina Plotkowski
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2010 11:4
  41. Cognitive impairment is one of the main consequences of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and is usually attributed in part to the oxidative stress caused by intermittent hypoxia in cerebral tissues. The presence ...

    Authors: Isaac Almendros, Josep M Montserrat, Marta Torres, Constancio González, Daniel Navajas and Ramon Farré
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2010 11:3
  42. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are critical components in the regulation of pulmonary immune responses and the recognition of respiratory pathogens such as Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (M.tb). Through examination of hu...

    Authors: Esmeralda Juarez, Carlos Nuñez, Eduardo Sada, Jerrold J Ellner, Stephan K Schwander and Martha Torres
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2010 11:2
  43. The purpose of this study was to evaluate collagen deposition, mRNA collagen synthesis and TGF-beta expression in the lung tissue in an experimental model of scleroderma after collagen V-induced nasal tolerance.

    Authors: Ana Paula P Velosa, Walcy R Teodoro, Daniel M dos Anjos, Renata Konno, Cristiane C Oliveira, Maria LH Katayama, Edwin R Parra, Vera L Capelozzi and Natalino H Yoshinari
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2010 11:1
  44. In idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH), peripheral airway obstruction is frequent. This is partially attributed to the mediator dysbalance, particularly an excess of endothelin-1 (ET-1), to incre...

    Authors: Annette S Droste, David Rohde, Mirko Voelkers, Arthur Filusch, Thomas Bruckner, Mathias M Borst, Hugo A Katus and F Joachim Meyer
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2009 10:129
  45. Urokinase (UK) 2 200 U/kg·h for 12 hours infusion(UK-12 h)is an ACCP recommended regimen in treating acute pulmonary embolism (PE). It is unclear whether this dose and time can be reduced further. We compared ...

    Authors: Chen Wang, Zhenguo Zhai, Yuanhua Yang, Yadong Yuan, Zhaozhong Cheng, Lirong Liang, Huaping Dai, Kewu Huang, Weixuan Lu, Zhonghe Zhang, Xiansheng Cheng and Ying H Shen
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2009 10:128
  46. Lungs are exposed to the outside environment and therefore to toxic and infectious agents or allergens. This may lead to permanent activation of innate immune response elements. A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinas...

    Authors: Genevieve Paulissen, Natacha Rocks, Maud M Gueders, Celine Crahay, Florence Quesada-Calvo, Sandrine Bekaert, Jonathan Hacha, Mehdi El Hour, Jean-Michel Foidart, Agnes Noel and Didier D Cataldo
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2009 10:127
  47. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is essential in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced fibroblast activation and collagen secretion in vitro. However, its effects on the process of lung fibroblast activation and fibrosi...

    Authors: ZhengYu He, YeSen Zhu and Hong Jiang
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2009 10:126

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