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  1. Sarcoidosis and chronic beryllium disease (CBD) are phenocopies, however the latter one has a clear trigger factor that is beryllium exposure. This study analyses single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a la...

    Authors: Björn C. Frye, Karoline I. Gaede, Cesare Saltini, Milton D. Rossman, Dimitri S. Monos, Ken D. Rosenman, Christine R. Schuler, Ainsley Weston, Ralf Wegner, Rainer Noth, Gernot Zissel, Stefan Schreiber, Michael Nothnagel and Joachim Müller-Quernheim

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:107

    Content type: Letter to the Editor

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  2. Cystic fibrosis is a debilitating, autosomal recessive disease which results in chronic upper and lower airway infection and inflammation. In this study, four adult patients presenting with cystic fibrosis and...

    Authors: Brett Wagner Mackenzie, Camila Dassi, Anitha Vivekanandan, Melissa Zoing, Richard G. Douglas and Kristi Biswas

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:106

    Content type: Research

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  3. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic interstitial lung disease characterized by fibrosis and progressive loss of lung function. The pathophysiological pathways involved in IPF are not well understo...

    Authors: Shabarinath Nambiar, Britt Clynick, Bong S. How, Adam King, E. Haydn Walters, Nicole S. Goh, Tamera J. Corte, Robert Trengove, Dino Tan and Yuben Moodley

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:105

    Content type: Research

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  4. Workplaces with elevated organic dust levels such as animal feed barns also commonly have elevated levels of gasses, such as CO2. Workers exposed to such complex environments often experience respiratory effects ...

    Authors: David Schneberger, Upkardeep Pandher, Brooke Thompson and Shelley Kirychuk

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:104

    Content type: Research

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  5. Oral corticosteroids are important components of pharmacotherapy in severe asthma. Our objective was to describe the extent, trends, and factors associated with exposure to oral corticosteroids (OCS) in a seve...

    Authors: Mohsen Sadatsafavi, Amir Khakban, Hamid Tavakoli, Solmaz Ehteshami-Afshar, Larry D. Lynd and J. Mark FitzGerald

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:103

    Content type: Research

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  6. We would like to comment on the recently published article titled: “Circulating Vitamin D levels status and clinical prognostic indices in COVID-19 patients” by Ricci et al. The authors grouped the patients in...

    Authors: Prateek Lohia, Shweta Kapur, Pragnesh Patel and Berhane Seyoum

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:102

    Content type: Letter to the Editor

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  7. Late onset non-infectious pulmonary complications (LONIPCs) following allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) confer a significant mortality risk. Lung transplantation (LTx) has the poten...

    Authors: Peter Riddell, Ram Vasudevan-Nampoothiri, Jin Ma, Lianne G. Singer, Jeff H. Lipton and Stephen C. Juvet

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:101

    Content type: Research

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  8. Whole lung tissue transcriptomic profiling studies in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have led to the identification of several genes associated with the severity of airflow limitation and/or the ...

    Authors: Xiuying Li, Guillaume Noell, Tracy Tabib, Alyssa D. Gregory, Humberto E. Trejo Bittar, Ravi Vats, Tomasz W. Kaminski, John Sembrat, Mark E. Snyder, Divay Chandra, Kong Chen, Chunbin Zou, Yingze Zhang, Prithu Sundd, John F. McDyer, Frank Sciurba…

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:100

    Content type: Research

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  9. COVID-19 pneumonia has been associated with severe acute hypoxia, sepsis-like states, thrombosis and chronic sequelae including persisting hypoxia and fibrosis. The molecular hypoxia response pathway has been ...

    Authors: Atish Gheware, Dhwani Dholakia, Sadasivam Kannan, Lipsa Panda, Ritu Rani, Bijay Ranjan Pattnaik, Vaibhav Jain, Yash Parekh, M. Ghalib Enayathullah, Kiran Kumar Bokara, Venkatesan Subramanian, Mitali Mukerji, Anurag Agrawal and Bhavana Prasher

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:99

    Content type: Research

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  10. A common variant located in the promoter region of MUC5B (rs35705950) is the strongest risk factor for sporadic and familiar IPF, as well as a predictor of outcome. However, there are no data on the effect of MUC...

    Authors: Davide Biondini, Elisabetta Cocconcelli, Nicol Bernardinello, Giulia Lorenzoni, Chiara Rigobello, Sara Lococo, Gioele Castelli, Simonetta Baraldo, Manuel G. Cosio, Dario Gregori, Marina Saetta, Elisabetta Balestro and Paolo Spagnolo

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:98

    Content type: Research

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  11. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), generated extracellularly by the action of autotaxin and phospholipase A2, functions through LPA receptors (LPARs) or sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors (S1PRs) to induce pro-fibrot...

    Authors: Shyam Nathan, Haijun Zhang, Mirko Andreoli, Philip L. Leopold and Ronald G. Crystal

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:97

    Content type: Research

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  12. No clinical studies to date have compared the inspiratory and expiratory airway lumen area between supine and standing positions. Thus, the aims of this study were twofold: (1) to compare inspiratory and expir...

    Authors: Shotaro Chubachi, Yoshitake Yamada, Minoru Yamada, Yoichi Yokoyama, Akiko Tanabe, Shiho Matsuoka, Yuki Niijima, Wakako Yamasawa, Hidehiro Irie, Mitsuru Murata, Koichi Fukunaga and Masahiro Jinzaki

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:95

    Content type: Research

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  13. Pneumonia is the most frequently encountered postoperative pulmonary complications (PPC) after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), which cause high morbidity and mortality rates. We aimed to develop a mode...

    Authors: Chaojin Chen, Dong Yang, Shilong Gao, Yihan Zhang, Liubing Chen, Bohan Wang, Zihan Mo, Yang Yang, Ziqing Hei and Shaoli Zhou

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:94

    Content type: Research

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  14. Cut offs for fat-free mass index (FFMI) and appendicular skeletal muscle mass index (ASMI) are available for diagnosing low muscle mass in patients with COPD. This study aimed to investigate: (1) the frequency...

    Authors: Felipe V. C. Machado, Martijn A. Spruit, Miriam T. J. Groenen, Sarah Houben-Wilke, Paula P. van Melick, Nidia A. Hernandes, Annemie M. W. J. Schols, Fabio Pitta, Emiel F. M. Wouters and Frits M. E. Franssen

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:93

    Content type: Research

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  15. People with rare lung diseases often suffer the burden of delayed diagnosis, limited treatment options, and difficulties in finding expert physicians. One of the reasons for the delay in diagnosis is the limit...

    Authors: Tiago M. Alfaro, Marlies S. Wijsenbeek, Pippa Powell, Daiana Stolz, John R. Hurst, Michael Kreuter and Catharina C. Moor

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:92

    Content type: Review

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  16. A single-inhaler extrafine triple combination of beclometasone dipropionate (BDP), formoterol fumarate (FF) and glycopyrronium (G) has been developed for maintenance therapy of chronic obstructive pulmonary di...

    Authors: Jinping Zheng, Simonetta Baldi, Li Zhao, Huiping Li, Kwan-Ho Lee, Dave Singh, Alberto Papi, Frédérique Grapin, Alessandro Guasconi and George Georges

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:90

    Content type: Research

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  17. Ehealth platforms, since the outbreak of COVID-19 more important than ever, can support self-management in patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). The aim of this observational study is to ...

    Authors: Cathelijne M. van Zelst, Marise J. Kasteleyn, Esther M. J. van Noort, Maureen P. M. H. Rutten - van Molken, Gert-Jan Braunstahl, Niels H. Chavannes and Johannes C. C. M. in ’t Veen

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:88

    Content type: Research

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  18. The Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA) has launched the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Quality Assessment Program (CQAP) since 2014. We aimed to reveal the influence of ...

    Authors: Hye Jung Park, Sung-Ryeol Kim, Sinae Kim, Hye Sun Lee, Bo Yeon Kim, Hye Kyoung Kim, Sang In Ahn, Ji Hyeon Shin, Jae-Hyun Lee and Jung-Won Park

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:87

    Content type: Research

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  19. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by a progressive and abnormal inflammatory response in the lungs, mainly caused by cigarette smoking. Animal models exposed to cigarette smoke (CS)...

    Authors: Jef Serré, Ajime Tom Tanjeko, Carolien Mathyssen, An-Sofie Vanherwegen, Tobias Heigl, Rob Janssen, Eric Verbeken, Karen Maes, Bart Vanaudenaerde, Wim Janssens and Ghislaine Gayan-Ramirez

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:86

    Content type: Research

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  20. Tbx2 encodes a transcriptional repressor implicated in the development of numerous organs in mouse. During lung development TBX2 maintains the proliferation of mesenchymal progenitors, and hence, epithelial proli...

    Authors: Timo H. Lüdtke, Irina Wojahn, Marc-Jens Kleppa, Jasper Schierstaedt, Vincent M. Christoffels, Patrick Künzler and Andreas Kispert

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:85

    Content type: Research

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  21. In the INBUILD trial in patients with chronic fibrosing interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) and a progressive phenotype, nintedanib reduced the rate of ILD progression with adverse events that were manageable fo...

    Authors: Vincent Cottin, Luca Richeldi, Ivan Rosas, Maria Otaola, Jin Woo Song, Sara Tomassetti, Marlies Wijsenbeek, Manuela Schmitz, Carl Coeck, Susanne Stowasser, Rozsa Schlenker-Herceg and Martin Kolb

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:84

    Content type: Research

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  22. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Christophe Pison, Pallav L. Shah, Dirk‑Jan Slebos, Vincent Ninane, Wim Janssens, Thierry Perez, Romain Kessler, Gaetan Deslee, Justin L. Garner, Jorine E. Hartman, Bruno Degano, Anna Mayr, Martin Mayse, Alexander D. Peterson and Arschang Valipour

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:83

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Respiratory Research 2021 22:62

  23. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Solmaz Ehteshami‑Afshar, Kristina Crothers, Benjamin Rodwin, Brett Bade, Cynthia Brandt and Kathleen M. Akgün

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:82

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Respiratory Research 2021 22:50

  24. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Jordan Smoothy, Alexander N. Larcombe, Emily K. Chivers, Vance B. Matthews and Shelley Gorman

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:81

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Respiratory Research 2019 20:21

  25. Short-term exposure to ozone and nitrogen dioxide is a risk factor for acute exacerbation (AE) of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (AE-IPF). The comprehensive roles of exposure to fine particulate matter in AE-IP...

    Authors: Masahiro Tahara, Yoshihisa Fujino, Kei Yamasaki, Keishi Oda, Takashi Kido, Noriho Sakamoto, Toshinori Kawanami, Kensuke Kataoka, Ryoko Egashira, Mikiko Hashisako, Yuzo Suzuki, Tomoyuki Fujisawa, Hiroshi Mukae, Takafumi Suda and Kazuhiro Yatera

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:80

    Content type: Research

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  26. Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) improves exercise capacity, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and dyspnea in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. Maintenance programs can sustain the benef...

    Authors: Léo Blervaque, Christian Préfaut, Hélène Forthin, Francis Maffre, Marion Bourrelier, Nelly Héraud, Matthias Catteau, Pascal Pomiès, Dany Jaffuel, Nicolas Molinari, Maurice Hayot and Fares Gouzi

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:79

    Content type: Research

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  27. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Tsutomu Saito, Tomohiro Ichikawa, Tadahisa Numakura, Mitsuhiro Yamada, Akira Koarai, Naoya Fujino, Koji Murakami, Shun Yamanaka, Yusaku Sasaki, Yorihiko Kyogoku, Koji Itakura, Hirohito Sano, Katsuya Takita, Rie Tanaka, Tsutomu Tamada, Masakazu Ichinose…

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:78

    Content type: Correction

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    The original article was published in Respiratory Research 2021 22:63

  28. Studies report high in-hospital mortality of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) especially for those requiring admission to an intensive care unit. Recognizing factors associa...

    Authors: Yang Cao, Zhenzhen Xing, Huanyu Long, Yilin Huang, Ping Zeng, Jean-Paul Janssens and Yanfei Guo

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:77

    Content type: Research

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  29. Several immune mechanisms activate in COVID-19 pathogenesis. Usually, coronavirus infection is characterized by dysregulated host immune responses, interleukine-6 increase, hyper-activation of cytotoxic CD8 T ...

    Authors: Alberto Ricci, Alessandra Pagliuca, Michela D’Ascanio, Marta Innammorato, Claudia De Vitis, Rita Mancini, Simonetta Giovagnoli, Francesco Facchiano, Bruno Sposato, Paolo Anibaldi, Adriano Marcolongo, Chiara De Dominicis, Andrea Laghi, Emanuele Muscogiuri and Salvatore Sciacchitano

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:76

    Content type: Research

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  30. Asthma was identified as the most common comorbidity in hospitalized patients during the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic. We determined using a murine model of allergic asthma whether these mice experienced incre...

    Authors: Kimia Shahangian, David A. Ngan, H. H. Rachel Chen, Yeni Oh, Anthony Tam, Jing Wen, Chung Cheung, Darryl A. Knight, Delbert R. Dorscheid, Tillie L. Hackett, Michael R. Hughes, Kelly M. McNagny, Jeremy A. Hirota, Masahiro Niikura, S. F. Paul Man and Don D. Sin

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:75

    Content type: Research

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  31. The pathophysiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) relies on airway remodelling and inflammation. Alterations of mucociliary clearance are a major hallmark of COPD caused by structural and fun...

    Authors: Jeanne-Marie Perotin, Myriam Polette, Gaëtan Deslée and Valérian Dormoy

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:74

    Content type: Letter to the Editor

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  32. The mechanism for spread of SARS-CoV-2 has been attributed to large particles produced by coughing and sneezing. There is controversy whether smaller airborne particles may transport SARS-CoV-2. Smaller partic...

    Authors: Rebecca A. Stern, Petros Koutrakis, Marco A. G. Martins, Bernardo Lemos, Scot E. Dowd, Elsie M. Sunderland and Eric Garshick

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:73

    Content type: Research

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  33. Chlamydia pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae have been implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma and are responsible for chronic inflammation when host immune system fails to eradicate the bacteria.

    Authors: Doriane Calmes, Pascale Huynen, Virginie Paulus, Monique Henket, Françoise Guissard, Catherine Moermans, Renaud Louis and Florence Schleich

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:72

    Content type: Research

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  34. Delivery of medications to preterm neonates receiving non-invasive ventilation (NIV) represents one of the most challenging scenarios for aerosol medicine. This challenge is highlighted by the undersized anato...

    Authors: Federico Bianco, Fabrizio Salomone, Ilaria Milesi, Xabier Murgia, Sauro Bonelli, Elena Pasini, Raffaele Dellacà, Maria Luisa Ventura and Jane Pillow

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:71

    Content type: Review

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  35. Metformin is associated with improved respiratory outcomes in asthma; however, metformin in COPD and asthma-COPD overlap (ACO) remains unexplored.

    Authors: Tianshi David Wu, Ashraf Fawzy, Gregory L. Kinney, Jessica Bon, Maniraj Neupane, Vickram Tejwani, Nadia N. Hansel, Robert A. Wise, Nirupama Putcha and Meredith C. McCormack

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:70

    Content type: Research

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  36. CD34, a pan-selectin binding protein when glycosylated, has been shown to be involved in leukocyte migration to the site of inflammation. However, only one report is available on the expression and role of CD3...

    Authors: Gurpreet K. Aulakh, Sushmita Maltare and Baljit Singh

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:69

    Content type: Research

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  37. Subjects with chronic respiratory symptoms and preserved pulmonary function (PPF) may have small airway dysfunction (SAD). As the most common means to detect SAD, spirometry needs good cooperation and its reli...

    Authors: Liang-Yuan Li, Tian-Sheng Yan, Jing Yang, Yu-Qi Li, Lin-Xi Fu, Lan Lan, Bin-Miao Liang, Mao-Yun Wang and Feng-Ming Luo

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:68

    Content type: Research

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  38. Infection with Haemophilus influenzae (Hi) or Moraxella catarrhalis (Mcat) is a risk factor for exacerbation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The ability to predict Hi- or Mcat-associated exacerba...

    Authors: Lucio Malvisi, Laura Taddei, Aparna Yarraguntla, Tom M. A. Wilkinson and Ashwani Kumar Arora

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:67

    Content type: Research

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  39. FIBRONET was an observational, multicentre, prospective cohort study investigating the baseline characteristics, clinical course of disease and use of antifibrotic treatment in Italian patients with idiopathic...

    Authors: V. Poletti, C. Vancheri, C. Albera, S. Harari, A. Pesci, R. R. Metella, B. Campolo, G. Crespi and S. Rizzoli

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:66

    Content type: Research

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  40. Airway inflammation is a key feature of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) remain the main treatment for airway inflammation. Studies have noted the increased effica...

    Authors: Nan Yang, Gurpreet K. Singhera, Yi Xuan Yan, Michael P. Pieper, Janice M. Leung, Don D. Sin and Delbert R. Dorscheid

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:65

    Content type: Research

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  41. Beta-blockers are associated with reduced mortality in patients with cardiovascular disease but are often under prescribed in those with concomitant COPD, due to concerns regarding respiratory side-effects. We...

    Authors: Claudia Gulea, Rosita Zakeri, Vanessa Alderman, Alexander Morgan, Jack Ross and Jennifer K. Quint

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:64

    Content type: Review

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  42. The airway epithelial barrier function is disrupted in the airways of asthmatic patients. Abnormal mitochondrial biogenesis is reportedly involved in the pathogenesis of asthma. However, the role of mitochondr...

    Authors: Tsutomu Saito, Tomohiro Ichikawa, Tadahisa Numakura, Mitsuhiro Yamada, Akira Koarai, Naoya Fujino, Koji Murakami, Shun Yamanaka, Yusaku Sasaki, Yorihiko Kyogoku, Koji Itakura, Hirohito Sano, Katsuya Takita, Rie Tanaka, Tsutomu Tamada, Masakazu Ichinose…

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:63

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in Respiratory Research 2021 22:78

  43. Targeted lung denervation (TLD) is a novel bronchoscopic therapy that disrupts parasympathetic pulmonary nerve input to the lung reducing clinical consequences of cholinergic hyperactivity. The AIRFLOW-1 study...

    Authors: Christophe Pison, Pallav L. Shah, Dirk-Jan Slebos, Vincent Ninane, Wim Janssens, Thierry Perez, Romain Kessler, Gaetan Deslee, Justin L. Garner, Jorine E. Hartman, Bruno Degano, Anna Mayr, Martin Mayse, Alexander D. Peterson and Arschang Valipour

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:62

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in Respiratory Research 2021 22:83

  44. Rapid response system (RRS) is being increasingly adopted to improve patient safety in hospitals worldwide. However, predictors of survival outcome after RRS activation because of unexpected clinical deteriora...

    Authors: Jimyung Park, Yeon Joo Lee, Sang-Bum Hong, Kyeongman Jeon, Jae Young Moon, Jung Soo Kim, Byung Ju Kang, Jong-Joon Ahn, Dong-Hyun Lee, Jisoo Park, Jae Hwa Cho and Sang-Min Lee

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:60

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  45. Low body weight is associated with poor prognosis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, it is not known whether gender modifies this relationship.

    Authors: Wenjia Chen, Mohsen Sadatsafavi, J. Mark FitzGerald, Larry D. Lynd and Don D. Sin

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:59

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  46. MicroRNA (miR) are small conserved RNA that regulate gene expression post-transcription. Previous genome-wide analysis studies in preterm infants indicate that pathways of miR 219-5p are important in infants w...

    Authors: Amelia Freeman, Luhua Qiao, Nelida Olave, Gabriel Rezonzew, Samuel Gentle, Brian Halloran, Gloria S. Pryhuber, Amit Gaggar, Trent E. Tipple, Namasivayam Ambalavanan and Charitharth Vivek Lal

    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:57

    Content type: Research

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