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  1. Thirty countries with the highest tuberculosis (TB) burden bear 87% of the world’s TB cases. Delayed diagnosis and treatment are detrimental to TB prognosis and sustain TB transmission in the community, making...

    Authors: Alvin Kuo Jing Teo, Shweta R. Singh, Kiesha Prem, Li Yang Hsu and Siyan Yi
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:251
  2. Mechanical ventilation can induce or aggravate lung injury, which is termed ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). Piezo1 is a key element of the mechanotransduction process and can transduce mechanical signal...

    Authors: Yang Zhang, Lulu Jiang, Tianfeng Huang, Dahao Lu, Yue Song, Lihui Wang and Ju Gao
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:250
  3. Elastin degradation has been established as one of the driving factors of emphysema. Elastin-derived peptides (EDPs) are shown to act as a chemoattractant for monocytes. Effectively shielding elastin from elas...

    Authors: Vaideesh Parasaram, Xiaoying Wang, Pantrika Krisanarungson and Narendra Vyavahare
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:249
  4. Chemoresistance limits the therapeutic effect of cisplatin (DDP) on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Circular RNAs (circRNAs) function as important regulators in chemoresistance. This study aimed to explore...

    Authors: Nan Feng, Zhi Guo, Xiaokang Wu, Ying Tian, Yue Li, Yan Geng and Yan Yu
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:248
  5. Social media is an increasingly popular source of health information, and the rarity and complexity of interstitial lung disease (ILD) may particularly draw patients with ILD to social media for information an...

    Authors: Japnam S. Grewal, Leticia Kawano-Dourado and Christopher J. Ryerson
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:247
  6. There is a need for timely, accurate diagnosis, and personalised management in lung diseases. Exhaled breath reflects inflammatory and metabolic processes in the human body, especially in the lungs. The analys...

    Authors: I. G. van der Sar, N. Wijbenga, G. Nakshbandi, J. G. J. V. Aerts, O. C. Manintveld, M. S. Wijsenbeek, M. E. Hellemons and C. C. Moor
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:246
  7. We performed a multicenter, randomized open-label trial in patients with moderate to severe Covid-19 treated with a range of possible treatment regimens. Methods: Patients were randomly assigned to one of thre...

    Authors: Mostafa Ghanei, Masoud Solaymani-Dodaran, Ali Qazvini, Amir Hosein Ghazale, Seyed Amin Setarehdan, Seyed Hassan Saadat, Hassan Ghobadi, Saeed Hoseininia, Maryam Elahikhah, Ali Hossein Samadi, Yousef Imani, Ensieh Vahedi, Farhang Babamahmoodi, Fatemeh Tajik Rostami, Mohammad Hossein Azimzadeh Ardebili, Akram Ansarifar…
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:245
  8. Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is considered one of the most common genetic diseases and is characterised by the misfolding and polymerisation of the alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) protein within hepatocytes...

    Authors: Alexa Núñez, Irene Belmonte, Elena Miranda, Miriam Barrecheguren, Georgina Farago, Eduardo Loeb, Mònica Pons, Francisco Rodríguez-Frías, Pablo Gabriel-Medina, Esther Rodríguez, Joan Genescà, Marc Miravitlles and Cristina Esquinas
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:244

    The Correction to this article has been published in Respiratory Research 2021 22:283

  9. The effect of additional antimicrobial agents on the clinical outcomes of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is unclear.

    Authors: Ching-Yi Chen, Chao-Hsien Chen, Cheng-Yi Wang, Chih-Cheng Lai, Chien-Ming Chao and Yu-Feng Wei
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:243
  10. Lung emphysema is an important phenotype of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and CT scanning is strongly recommended to establish the diagnosis. This study aimed to identify criteria by which phys...

    Authors: Christina Kellerer, Rudolf A. Jörres, Antonius Schneider, Peter Alter, Hans-Ulrich Kauczor, Bertram Jobst, Jürgen Biederer, Robert Bals, Henrik Watz, Jürgen Behr, Diego Kauffmann-Guerrero, Johanna Lutter, Alexander Hapfelmeier, Helgo Magnussen, Franziska C. Trudzinski, Tobias Welte…
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:242
  11. Pulmonary hypertension (PH) complicating idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is associated to worse outcome. There is a great need for a non-invasive diagnostic modality to detect and evaluate the severity of ...

    Authors: François Harel, Quang T. Nguyen, Mohamed J. Nsaibia, Vincent Finnerty, Arielle Morgan, Martin Sirois, Louis Villeneuve, Angelino Calderone, Alexandre Bergeron, Emmanuelle Brochiero, Jean-Claude Tardif, YanFen Shi and Jocelyn Dupuis
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:240
  12. It has been found that up-regulation of histone deacetylases 1 (HDAC1) is involved in the development of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). However, it is still unclear whether inhibition of HDAC1 suppress...

    Authors: Fangwei Li, Dan Wang, Hong Wang, Lijun Chen, Xilu Sun and Yixin Wan
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:239
  13. Childhood asthma is a common respiratory disease characterized by airway inflammation. Tumor necrosis factor-α-induced protein 8-like 2 (TIPE2) has been found to be involved in the progression of asthma. This ...

    Authors: Huiyuan Wang, Bo Zhong, Yan Geng, Juanjuan Hao, Qiaoyan Jin, Yang Zhang, Lijuan Dong, Dan Gao, Jing Li and Wei Hou
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:238
  14. Follow-up studies of COVID-19 patients have found lung function impairment up to six months after initial infection, but small airway function has not previously been studied. Patients (n = 20) hospitalised fo...

    Authors: Anna Lindahl, Jere Reijula, Leo Pekka Malmberg, Miia Aro, Tuula Vasankari and Mika Juhani Mäkelä
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:237
  15. Rapid response systems (RRSs) improve patients’ safety, but the role of dedicated doctors within these systems remains controversial. We aimed to evaluate patient survival rates and differences in types of int...

    Authors: Hyung-Jun Kim, Kyeongman Jeon, Byung Ju Kang, Jong-Joon Ahn, Sang-Bum Hong, Dong-Hyun Lee, Jae Young Moon, Jung Soo Kim, Jisoo Park, Jae Hwa Cho, Sang-Min Lee and Yeon Joo Lee
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:236
  16. Cigarette smoke triggers many cellular and signaling responses in the lung and the resulting inflammation plays a central role in smoke-related lung diseases, such as COPD. We explored the effects of smoking o...

    Authors: Spela Kokelj, Jörgen Östling, Benjamin Georgi, Karin Fromell, Kristina Nilsson Ekdahl, Henric K. Olsson and Anna-Carin Olin
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:234
  17. Ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) is a common complication in the treatment of respiratory diseases with high morbidity and mortality. ETS-domain containing protein (Elk1) and Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP...

    Authors: Zhao Tao, Yan Jie, Zhang Mingru, Gu Changping, Yang Fan, Wu Haifeng and Wang Yuelan
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:233
  18. Leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor B4 (LILRB4) is one of the inhibitory receptors in various types of immune cells including macrophages. Previous reports suggested that LILRB4 could be involved in a negat...

    Authors: Ayumi Mitsune, Mitsuhiro Yamada, Naoya Fujino, Tadahisa Numakura, Tomohiro Ichikawa, Ayumi Suzuki, Shuichiro Matsumoto, Yoshiya Mitsuhashi, Koji Itakura, Tomonori Makiguchi, Akira Koarai, Tsutomu Tamada, Shota Endo, Toshiyuki Takai, Yoshinori Okada, Satoshi Suzuki…
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:232
  19. Inhaled epoprostenol (iEPO) has been shown to reduce pulmonary artery pressure and improve oxygenation. iEPO is mainly delivered via a syringe pump with feed tubing connected to a vibrating mesh nebulizer with...

    Authors: Jie Li, Ashley E. Augustynovich, Payal K. Gurnani and James B. Fink
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:231
  20. Agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ have been suggested as potential adjuvant therapy in bacterial pneumonia because of their capacity to inhibit inflammation and enhance bacterial ...

    Authors: Ivan Ramirez-Moral, Bianca Lima Ferreira, Alex F. de Vos and Tom van der Poll
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:230
  21. The multidimensional and complex care needs of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) call for appropriate care models. This systematic review aimed to identify care models or components thereof tha...

    Authors: Anouk Delameillieure, Sarah Vandekerkhof, Bastiaan Van Grootven, Wim A. Wuyts and Fabienne Dobbels
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:229
  22. Transbronchial cryobiopsy in the evaluation of patients with interstitial lung diseases (ILD) is expected to reduce the need for surgical lung biopsy (SLB).

    Authors: Katrin E. Hostettler, Michael Tamm, Lukas Bubendorf, Peter Grendelmeier, Kathleen Jahn, Daiana Stolz, Jens Bremerich and Spasenija Savic Prince
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:228
  23. The innate and adaptive immune system is involved in the airway inflammation associated with acute exacerbations in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We evaluated the association of m...

    Authors: Severin Vogt, Jörg D. Leuppi, Philipp Schuetz, Beat Mueller, Carmen Volken, Sarah Dräger, Marten Trendelenburg, Jonas Rutishauser and Michael Osthoff
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:227
  24. Chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (CHP) is an interstitial lung disease (ILD) caused by long term exposure to an offending antigen. Antigen avoidance is associated with improved outcomes. We are unable to i...

    Authors: Kerri I. Aronson, Ronan O’Beirne, Fernando J. Martinez and Monika M. Safford
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:225
  25. Sarcoidosis most commonly affects lungs and intrathoracic lymph nodes, but any other organ can be involved. In epidemiological studies, many occupational and environmental exposures have been linked to sarcoid...

    Authors: Steven Ronsmans, Jolien De Ridder, Eline Vandebroek, Stephan Keirsbilck, Benoit Nemery, Peter H. M. Hoet, Steven Vanderschueren, Wim A. Wuyts and Jonas Yserbyt
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:224
  26. The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in significant acute morbidity and mortality worldwide. There is now a growing recognition of the longer-term sequelae of this infection, termed “long COVID”. However, little...

    Authors: Grace Y. Lam, A. Dean Befus, Ronald W. Damant, Giovanni Ferrara, Desi P. Fuhr, Michael K. Stickland, Rhea A. Varughese, Eric Y. Wong and Maeve P. Smith
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:222
  27. Prone positioning is recommended for patients with moderate-to-severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) receiving mechanical ventilation. While the debate continues as to whether COVID-19 ARDS is clin...

    Authors: Jimyung Park, Hong Yeul Lee, Jinwoo Lee and Sang-Min Lee
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:220
  28. Haemoptysis is a challenging symptom that can be associated with potentially life-threatening medical conditions. Follow-up is key in these patients to promptly detect new or misdiagnosed pathologic findings. ...

    Authors: Michele Mondoni, Paolo Carlucci, Giuseppe Cipolla, Matteo Pagani, Francesco Tursi, Alessandro Fois, Pietro Pirina, Sara Canu, Stefano Gasparini, Martina Bonifazi, Silvia Marani, Andrea Comel, Laura Saderi, Sabrina De Pascalis, Fausta Alfano, Stefano Centanni…
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:219
  29. Treatments of interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) mainly focus on disease stabilization and relief of symptoms by managing inflammation or suppressing fibrosis by (in part costly) drugs. To highlight economic bu...

    Authors: Phillen Nozibuyiso Maqhuzu, Michael Kreuter, Thomas Bahmer, Nicolas Kahn, Martin Claussen, Rolf Holle and Larissa Schwarzkopf
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:218
  30. Previous studies have shown inconsistent results regarding the impact of traffic pollution on the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Therefore, using frequency matching and propensity ...

    Authors: Hui-Tsung Hsu, Chih-Da Wu, Mu-Chi Chung, Te-Chun Shen, Ting-Ju Lai, Chiu-Ying Chen, Ruey-Yun Wang and Chi-Jung Chung
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:217
  31. Neutrophilic asthmatics (NA) have less response to inhaled corticosteroids. We aimed to find out the predictor of treatment response in NA.

    Authors: Shengding Zhang, Yu Fan, Lu Qin, Xiaoyu Fang, Cong Zhang, Junqing Yue, Wenxue Bai, Gang Wang, Zhihong Chen, Harld Renz, Chrysanthi Skevaki, Xiansheng Liu and Min Xie
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:216
  32. Clinical course of pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (PPFE) shows considerable variation among patients, but there is no established prognostic prediction model for PPFE.

    Authors: Yoshiaki Kinoshita, Takato Ikeda, Takuto Miyamura, Yusuke Ueda, Yuji Yoshida, Hisako Kushima, Masaki Fujita, Takashi Ogura, Kentaro Watanabe and Hiroshi Ishii
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:215
  33. We evaluated the effects of abrupt versus gradual PEEP decrease, combined with standard versus high-volume fluid administration, on cardiac function, as well as lung and kidney damage in an established model o...

    Authors: Nazareth N. Rocha, Cynthia S. Samary, Mariana A. Antunes, Milena V. Oliveira, Matheus R. Hemerly, Patrine S. Santos, Vera L. Capelozzi, Fernanda F. Cruz, John J. Marini, Pedro L. Silva, Paolo Pelosi and Patricia R. M. Rocco
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:214
  34. Increasing evidence revealed that airway microbial dysbiosis was associated with increased risk of asthma, or persistent wheezing (PW). However, the role of lung microbiota in PW or wheezing recurrence remains...

    Authors: Lei Wu, Chencong Shen, Yuanling Chen, Xin Yang, Xiaofei Luo, Chengcheng Hang, Lingling Yan and Xuefeng Xu
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:213
  35. Alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins (ACDMPV) is a rare lethal congenital lung disorder in neonates characterized by severe progressive respiratory failure and refractory pulmonary...

    Authors: Justyna A. Karolak, Tomasz Gambin, Przemyslaw Szafranski, Rebecca L. Maywald, Edwina Popek, Jason D. Heaney and Paweł Stankiewicz
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:212
  36. Whether acute respiratory failure in patients with interstitial lung disease is reversible remains uncertain. Consequently, indications for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in these patients are still contr...

    Authors: Yuko Usagawa, Kosaku Komiya, Mari Yamasue, Kiyohide Fushimi, Kazufumi Hiramatsu and Jun-ichi Kadota
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:211
  37. Although cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for lung cancer, the incidence rate of lung cancer among non-smokers is notable. The etiology and potential mechanism of non-smoker lung cancer are worthy of f...

    Authors: Fanglin Yu, Rendong Xiao, Xu Li, Zhijian Hu, Lin Cai and Fei He
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:210
  38. In some RCTs comparing triple therapy with dual therapy in COPD, there might be a bias resulting from the use of multiple inhaler devices. This meta-analysis included only RCTs that compared ICS/LABA/LAMA vs. ...

    Authors: Huanyu Long, Hongxuan Xu, Jean-Paul Janssens and Yanfei Guo
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:209
  39. Very preterm infants are at high risk of developing chronic lung disease, which requires respiratory support and might have long-term sequelae. As lung inflammation plays an important role in pathogenesis, ant...

    Authors: Marlide Jukema, Franciszek Borys, Greta Sibrecht, Karsten Juhl Jørgensen and Matteo Bruschettini
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:208
  40. Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) is a major serine protease inhibitor. AAT deficiency (AATD) is a genetic disorder characterized by early-onset severe emphysema. In well-selected AATD patients, therapy with plasma-de...

    Authors: Katsuyuki Takeda, Soo-Hyun Kim, Anthony Joetham, Irina Petrache and Erwin W. Gelfand
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:207
  41. Respiratory viral infections are one of the leading causes of need for emergency care and hospitalizations in asthmatic individuals, and airway-secreted cytokines are released within hours of viral infection t...

    Authors: Kristi J. Warren, Jill A. Poole, Jenea M. Sweeter, Jane M. DeVasure, John D. Dickinson, R. Stokes Peebles Jr and Todd A. Wyatt
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:206
  42. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is characterized by the accumulation of fibrillar collagens in the alveolar space resulting in reduced pulmonary function and a high mortality rate. Biomarkers measuring the...

    Authors: H. Jessen, N. Hoyer, T. S. Prior, P. Frederiksen, M. A. Karsdal, D. J. Leeming, E. Bendstrup, J. M. B. Sand and S. B. Shaker
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:205
  43. Inflammation is an essential mechanism of various diseases. The development and resolution of inflammation are complex immune-modulation processes which induce the involvement of various types of immune cells....

    Authors: Ailin Yang, Yanjun Wu, Ganggang Yu and Haoyan Wang
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:204
  44. Thousands of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients have been discharged from hospitals Persistent follow-up studies are required to evaluate the prevalence of post-COVID-19 fibrosis.

    Authors: Xiaohe Li, Chenguang Shen, Lifei Wang, Sumit Majumder, Die Zhang, M. Jamal Deen, Yanjie Li, Ling Qing, Ying Zhang, Chuming Chen, Rongrong Zou, Jianfeng Lan, Ling Huang, Cheng Peng, Lijiao Zeng, Yanhua Liang…
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:203
  45. The effect of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) on risk of hyperglycemia in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains ambiguous. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association betwee...

    Authors: Xiaofeng Pu, Liang Liu, Bimin Feng, Zhengji Zhang and Guojun Wang
    Citation: Respiratory Research 2021 22:201

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