Raghu G, Collard HR, Egan JJ, Martinez FJ, Behr J, Brown KK, et al. An official ATS/ERS/JRS/ALAT statement: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: evidence-based guidelines for diagnosis and management. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011;183:788–824.
Ley B, Ryerson CJ, Vittinghoff E, Ryu JH, Tomassetti S, Lee JS, et al. A multidimensional index and staging system for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Ann Intern Med. 2012;156:684–91.
Rudd RM, Prescott RJ, Chalmers JC, Johnston IDA. British Thoracic Society study on cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis: response to treatment and survival. Thorax. 2007;62:62–6.
Funke M, Geiser T. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: the turning point is now! Swiss Med Wkly. 2015;145:w14139.
Kim DS, Collard HR, King TE Jr. Classification and natural history of the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias. Proc Am Thorac Soc. 2006;3:285–92.
Coultas DB, Zumwalt RE, Black WC, Sobonya RE. The epidemiology of interstitial lung diseases. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1994;150:967–72.
Baumgartner K, Samet J, Stidley C, Colby T, Waldron J. Cigarette smoking: a risk factor for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Am J Respir Crit Care. 1997;155:242–8.
Geiser T. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis--a disorder of alveolar wound repair? Swiss Med Wkly. 2003;133:405–11.
Barkauskas CE, Noble PW. Cellular mechanisms of tissue fibrosis. 7. New insights into the cellular mechanisms of pulmonary fibrosis. Am J Physiol - Cell Physiol. 2014;306:C987–96.
Ahluwalia N, Shea BS, Tager AM. New therapeutic targets in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Aiming to rein in runaway wound-healing responses. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2014;190:867–78.
Raghu G, Rochwerg B, Zhang Y, Garcia CAC, Azuma A, Behr J, et al. An official ATS/ERS/JRS/ALAT clinical practice guideline: treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. An update of the 2011 clinical practice guideline. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2015;192:e3–19.
Ley B, Brown KK, Collard HR. Molecular biomarkers in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2014;307:L681–91.
Bujak R, Struck-Lewicka W, Markuszewski MJ, Kaliszan R. Metabolomics for laboratory diagnostics. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2015;113:108–20.
Reinke SN, Gallart-Ayala H, Gómez C, Checa A, Fauland A, Naz S, et al. Metabolomics analysis identifies different metabotypes of asthma severity. Eur Respir J. 2017;49:1601740.
Guiot J, Moermans C, Henket M, Corhay J-L, Louis R. Blood biomarkers in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Lung. 2017;195:273–80.
Paglia G, Angel P, Williams JP, Richardson K, Olivos HJ, Thompson JW, et al. Ion mobility-derived collision cross section as an additional measure for lipid fingerprinting and identification. Anal Chem. 2015;87:1137–44.
Benjamini Y, Hochberg Y. Controlling the false discovery rate: a practical and powerful approach to multiple testing. J R Stat Soc B. 1995;57:289–300.
Bally L, Bovet C, Nakas CT, Zueger T, Prost J-C, Nuoffer J-M, et al. A metabolomics approach to uncover effects of different exercise modalities in type 1 diabetes. Metabolomics. 2017;13:78.
Hines KM, May JC, McLean JA, Xu L. Evaluation of collision cross section Calibrants for structural analysis of lipids by traveling wave ion mobility-mass spectrometry. Anal Chem. 2016;88:7329–36.
Godzien J, Ciborowski M, Martínez-Alcázar MP, Samczuk P, Kretowski A, Barbas C. Rapid and reliable identification of phospholipids for untargeted Metabolomics with LC–ESI–QTOF–MS/MS. J Proteome Res. 2015;14:3204–16.
Yung YC, Stoddard NC, Chun J. LPA receptor signaling: pharmacology, physiology, and pathophysiology. J Lipid Res. 2014;55:1192–214.
Naz S, Kolmert J, Yang M, Reinke SN, Kamleh MA, Snowden S, et al. Metabolomics analysis identifies sex-associated metabotypes of oxidative stress and the autotaxin-lysoPA axis in COPD. Eur Respir J. 2017;49:1602322.
Zhao YD, Yin L, Archer S, Lu C, de Perrot M. Metabolic heterogeneity of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: a metabolomic study. BMJ Open Respir Res. 2017;4:e000183.
Kang YP, Lee SB, Lee JM, Kim HM, Hong JY, Lee WJ, et al. Metabolic profiling regarding pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. J Proteome Res. 2016;15:1717–24.
Luo F, Le N-B, Mills T, Chen N-Y, Karmouty-Quintana H, Molina JG, et al. Extracellular adenosine levels are associated with the progression and exacerbation of pulmonary fibrosis. FASEB J. 2016;30:874–83.
Zhou Y, Murthy JN, Zeng D, Belardinelli L, Blackburn MR. Alterations in adenosine metabolism and signaling in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. PLoS One. 2010;5:e9224.
Ferrari D, Gambari R, Idzko M, Müller T, Albanesi C, Pastore S, et al. Purinergic signaling in scarring. FASEB J. 2016;30:3–12.
Vasudha KC, Kumar AN, Venkatesh T. Studies on the age dependent changes in serum adenosine deaminase activity and its changes in hepatitis. Indian J Clin Biochem. 2006;21:116–20.
Baker DL, Umstot ES, Desiderio DM, Tigyi GJ. Quantitative analysis of Lysophosphatidic acid in human blood fractions. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006;905:267–9.
Alsafadi HN, Staab-Weijnitz CA, Lehmann M, Lindner M, Peschel B, Königshoff M, et al. An ex vivo model to induce early fibrosis-like changes in human precision-cut lung slices. Am J Physiol - Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2017;312:L896–902.
Mendoza FA, Mansoor M, Jimenez SA. Treatment of rapidly progressive systemic sclerosis: current and futures perspectives. Expert Opin orphan drugs. 2016;4:31–47.
Murph M, Tanaka T, Pang J, Felix E, Liu S, Trost R, et al. Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry for quantifying plasma Lysophospholipids: potential biomarkers for cancer diagnosis: Methods in Enzymology; 2007. p. 1–25.
Knowlden S, Georas SN. The Autotaxin-LPA Axis emerges as a novel regulator of lymphocyte homing and inflammation. J Immunol. 2014;192:851–7.
Navab M, Chattopadhyay A, Hough G, Meriwether D, Fogelman SI, Wagner AC, et al. Source and role of intestinally derived lysophosphatidic acid in dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis. J Lipid Res. 2015;56:871–87.
del Bas JM, Caimari A, Rodriguez-Naranjo MI, Childs CE, Paras Chavez C, West AL, et al. Impairment of lysophospholipid metabolism in obesity: altered plasma profile and desensitization to the modulatory properties of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016;104:266–79.
Ackerman SJ, Park GY, Christman JW, Nyenhuis S, Berdyshev E, Natarajan V. Polyunsaturated lysophosphatidic acid as a potential asthma biomarker. Biomark Med. 2016;10:123–35.
Balood M, Zahednasab H, Siroos B, Mesbah-Namin SA, Torbati S, Harirchian MH. Elevated serum levels of lysophosphatidic acid in patients with multiple sclerosis. Hum Immunol. 2014;75:411–3.
Velasco M, O’Sullivan C, Sheridan GK. Lysophosphatidic acid receptors (LPARs): potential targets for the treatment of neuropathic pain. Neuropharmacology. 2017;113:608–17.
Brunnert D, Sztachelska M, Bornkessel F, Treder N, Wolczynski S, Goyal P, et al. Lysophosphatidic acid and sphingosine 1-phosphate metabolic pathways and their receptors are differentially regulated during decidualization of human endometrial stromal cells. Mol Hum Reprod. 2014;20:1016–25.
Sakai N, Chun J, Duffield JS, Lagares D, Wada T, Luster AD, et al. Lysophosphatidic acid signaling through its receptor initiates profibrotic epithelial cell fibroblast communication mediated by epithelial cell derived connective tissue growth factor. Kidney Int. 2017;91:628–41.
Kaffe E, Katsifa A, Xylourgidis N, Ninou I, Zannikou M, Harokopos V, et al. Hepatocyte autotaxin expression promotes liver fibrosis and cancer. Hepatology. 2017;65:1369–83.
Tager AM, LaCamera P, Shea BS, Campanella GS, Selman M, Zhao Z, et al. The lysophosphatidic acid receptor LPA1 links pulmonary fibrosis to lung injury by mediating fibroblast recruitment and vascular leak. Nat Med. 2008;14:45–54.
Tager AM. Autotaxin emerges as a therapeutic target for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: limiting fibrosis by limiting lysophosphatidic acid synthesis. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2012;47:563–5.
Oikonomou N, Mouratis M-A, Tzouvelekis A, Kaffe E, Valavanis C, Vilaras G, et al. Pulmonary Autotaxin expression contributes to the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2012;47:566–74.
Xu MY, Porte J, Knox AJ, Weinreb PH, Maher TM, Violette SM, et al. Lysophosphatidic acid induces alphavbeta6 integrin-mediated TGF-beta activation via the LPA2 receptor and the small G protein G alpha (q). Am J Pathol. 2009;174:1264–79.
Huang LS, Fu P, Patel P, Harijith A, Sun T, Zhao Y, et al. Lysophosphatidic acid receptor-2 deficiency confers protection against bleomycin-induced lung injury and fibrosis in mice. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2013;49:912–22.
Tanaka M, Okudaira S, Kishi Y, Ohkawa R, Iseki S, Ota M, et al. Autotaxin stabilizes blood vessels and is required for embryonic vasculature by producing Lysophosphatidic acid. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:25822–30.
Tokumura A, Majima E, Kariya Y, Tominaga K, Kogure K, Yasuda K, et al. Identification of human plasma lysophospholipase D, a lysophosphatidic acid-producing enzyme, as autotaxin, a multifunctional phosphodiesterase. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:39436–42.
Lin M-E, Herr DR, Chun J. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptors: signaling properties and disease relevance. Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. 2010;91:130–8.
Fisher AB, Dodia C. Role of phospholipase A2 enzymes in degradation of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine by granular pneumocytes. J Lipid Res. 1996;37:1057–64.
Funke M, Zhao Z, Xu Y, Chun J, Tager AM. The lysophosphatidic acid receptor LPA1 promotes epithelial cell apoptosis after lung injury. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2012;46:355–64.
Van Meeteren LA, Moolenaar WH. Regulation and biological activities of the autotaxin–LPA axis. Prog Lipid Res. 2007;46:145–60.
Ntolios P, Papanas N, Nena E, Boglou P, Koulelidis A, Tzouvelekis A, et al. Mean platelet volume as a surrogate marker for platelet activation in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Clin Appl Thromb. 2016;22:346–50.
Montesi SB, Mathai SK, Brenner LN, Gorshkova IA, Berdyshev EV, Tager AM, et al. Docosatetraenoyl LPA is elevated in exhaled breath condensate in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. BMC Pulm Med. 2014;14:5.
Nowak-Machen M, Lange M, Exley M, Wu S, Usheva A, Robson SC. Lysophosphatidic acid generation by pulmonary NKT cell ENPP-2/autotaxin exacerbates hyperoxic lung injury. Purinergic Signal. 2015;11:455–61.
Park GY, Lee YG, Berdyshev E, Nyenhuis S, Du J, Fu P, et al. Autotaxin production of lysophosphatidic acid mediates allergic asthmatic inflammation. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2013;188:928–40.
Study to Assess Safety, Tolerability, Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Properties of GLPG1690 - ClinicalTrials.gov. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02738801?term=GLPG1690&rank=2. Accessed 29 Nov 2017.
Desroy N, Housseman C, Bock X, Joncour A, Bienvenu N, Cherel L, et al. Discovery of 2-[[2-Ethyl-6-[4-[2-(3-hydroxyazetidin-1-yl)-2-oxoethyl] piperazin-1-yl]-8-methylimidazo [1,2-a] pyridin-3-yl] methylamino]-4-(4-fluorophenyl) thiazole-5-carbonitrile (GLPG1690), a first-in-class Autotaxin inhibitor undergoing clinical evaluation. J Med Chem. 2017;60:3580–90.
Xia J, Wishart DS, Xia J, Wishart DS. Using MetaboAnalyst 3.0 for comprehensive Metabolomics data analysis. In: Current protocols in bioinformatics. Hoboken: Wiley Inc; 2016. p. 14.10.1–14.10.91.
Rindlisbacher B, Strebel C, Guler S, Kollár A, Geiser T, Martin Fiedler G, et al. Exhaled breath condensate as a potential biomarker tool for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis—a pilot study. J Breath Res. 2017;12:16003.