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Table 3 Indicators for COPD. These indicators are related to the presence of COPD and should ideally be present in animal models and available for analysis.

From: Models of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Indicator Human features Experimental approach
History of exposure to risk factors Tobacco smoke.
Occupational dusts and chemicals.
Indoor / outdoor air pollution
Exposure-based experimental protocol
Airflow obstruction Decrease in FEV1 Lung function tests
Hypersecretion Chronic sputum production Functional and morphological assessment of hypersecretion
Cough Chronic intermittent or persistent cough Cough assessment
Dyspnea Progressive / Persistent / worse on exercise / worse during respiratory infections Assessment of hypoxemia
Emphysema Progressive impairment of lung function Morphological analysis of airspace enlargement