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Table 1 Characteristics of LSC subjects with and without ever WS exposure for over a year

From: Wood smoke exposure affects lung aging, quality of life, and all-cause mortality in New Mexican smokers

Variable WS exposure for over a year P
Ever Never
N 684 1688  
Baseline variables    
 Age (year, mean ± SD) 55.3 ± 9.0 56.7 ± 9.5 0.0013*
 Male sex (n, %) 188 (27.5) 438 (26.0) 0.44†
 Ethnicity (n, %)     < 0.0001†
  NHW 457 (66.8) 1286 (76.2)  
  Hispanic 165 (24.1) 271 (16.1)  
  Other ethnicities 62 (9.1) 131 (7.8)  
  Current smoker (n, %) 425 (62.1) 957 (56.7) 0.015†
  Packyears (median, IQR) 35.5 (26.8–48.5) 34.5 (25.5–48.5) 0.35‡
  Time since quit (year, median, IQR) 6.3 (2.2–15.4) 9.4 (3.5–18.3) 0.0026‡
  College education (n, %)†† 450 (66.0) 1190 (70.7) 0.024†
  Annual income ≥ 30 K (n, %)‡‡ 248 (44.6) 684 (52.2) 0.0034†
  FEV1 (L/s, mean ± SD) 2.54 ± 0.77 2.59 ± 0.76 0.21*
  FVC (L, mean ± SD) 3.51 ± 0.94 3.53 ± 0.95 0.73*
  FEV1/FVC ratio (%, mean ± SD) 72.3 ± 11.3 73.4 ± 10.2 0.024*
  Airway obstruction (n, %) 215 (31.4) 442 (26.2) 0.0097†
  CMH (n, %) 222 (32.4) 398 (23.5)  < 0.0001†
  Sputum MI (median, IQR)§ 2 (1–4) 2 (1–4) 0.90‡
  Charlson comorbidity score ≥ 1 (n, %) 412 (60.2) 819 (48.5)  < 0.0001†
 HRQoL: SF-36 (mean ± SD, % with score 100)    
  Physical functioning 71.0 ± 27.3, 15.5|| 78.1 ± 24.1, 22.1  < 0.0001*
  Role physical 67.8 ± 40.5, 55.9|| 79.1 ± 35.0, 69.1  < 0.0001*
  Bodily pain 61.6 ± 26.2, 17.4|| 68.8 ± 24.8, 24.9  < 0.0001*
  Role emotional 69.7 ± 41.7, 61.7|| 77.1 ± 38.5, 71.3  < 0.0001*
  Social functioning 75.5 ± 27.2, 41.8|| 82.2 ± 24.4, 52.7  < 0.0001*
  Mental health 70.1 ± 20.2, 3.2** 74.9 ± 19.4, 5.3  < 0.0001*
  Vitality 51.1 ± 23.8, 1.3 57.5 ± 21.9, 1.9  < 0.0001*
  General health perceptions 61.8 ± 22.6, 3.7 68.7 ± 21.1, 4.9  < 0.0001*
 HRQoL: SGRQ (mean ± SD, % with score 0)    
  Symptom 39.1 ± 24.9, 5.3|| 28.1 ± 22.2, 11.9  < 0.0001*
  Activity 38.1 ± 25.9, 8.5|| 29.2 ± 24.5, 16.1  < 0.0001*
  Impact 16.2 ± 16.2, 18.7|| 10.3 ± 13.4, 35.6  < 0.0001*
  Total 27.8 ± 19.54, 1.0|| 19.6 ± 17.0, 4.3  < 0.0001*
Longitudinal data    
 # Spirometry (median, IQR) 3 (1.5–6) 4 (2–7) 0.0008‡
 Duration in cohort (year, median, IQR) 3.6 (0.5–8.5) 4.6 (1.4–9.6) 0.0013‡
 # SGRQ (median, IQR) 2 (1–5) 2 (1–6) 0.12‡
 # Death by 2020 (n, %) 108 (15.8) 272 (16.1) 0.85†
 Age at death (year, mean ± SD) 69.3 ± 10.3 72.8 ± 10.2 0.0029*
Primary cause of death (n, %)    0.90†
 Cardio pulmonary diseases 41 (38.0) 114 (41.9)  
 Cancers 35 (32.4) 84 (30.9)  
 Other causes 32 (29.6) 74 (27.2)  
 Lung cancer incidence (n, %) 22 (3.2) 50 (3.0) 0.74†
 Age at LC diagnosis (year, mean ± SD) 68.6 ± 8.2 69.9 ± 8.2 0.56*
  1. CMH chronic mucous hypersecretion, HRQoL health related quality of life, IRQ inter quartile range, NHW non-Hispanic white, SD standard deviation, SGRQ St. George’s Respiratory questionnaire, MI methylation index, WS woodsmoke
  2. *Student t test. Age at death was missing for one subject with ever WS exposure
  3. †Chi-square test
  4. ‡Wilcoxon rank sum test
  5. §Sputum MI is available in 521 subjects with ever WS exposure for over a year and 1280 subjects without
  6. ||Chi-square test, P < 0.0001, compared to never WS exposure
  7. **Chi-square test, P = 0.028, compared to never WS exposure
  8. ††Missing education for 2 subjects with ever and 5 subjects with never WS exposure
  9. ‡‡Missing income for 128 subjects with ever and 373 subjects with never WS exposure