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Table 4 Factors associated with the severe persistent (SP) respiratory impairment cluster

From: Cluster analysis unveils a severe persistent respiratory impairment phenotype 3-months after severe COVID-19

  SP cluster NSP cluster p-value
n   18 41  
Clustering factors    
 DLCO, % pred 47.9 ± 12.2 76.5 ± 10.6  < 0.0001
 TLC, % pred 84.0 ± 13.5 106.2 ± 17.7  < 0.0001
 6MWD, m 299 ± 141 480 ± 65  < 0.0001
Associated factors    
 Demography    
  Age 67.8 ± 10.9 60.2 ± 12.5 0.024
 COVID-19 features at admission    
  Delay from symptoms onset to admission, days 5 [9] 8 [3] 0.014
  Diarrhea at diagnosis 6 (3.3) 27 (65.9) 0.021
 3-months assessment    
  Dyspnea (mMRC score ≥ 2) 11 (61.1) 12 (29.3) 0.021
  Cough (CASA-Q)    
   Symptom 74.1 ± 21.4 84.8 ± 11.9 0.017
   Impact 79.5 ± 23.9 92.6 ± 10.1 0.004
  Sputum (CASA-Q)    
   Impact 89.6 ± 14.5 92.8 ± 14.0 0.037
  Lung function    
   FEV1, % pred 80.7 ± 13.1 101.1 ± 18.2  < 0.0001
   FVC, % pred 77.8 ± 15.3 103.7 ± 17.5  < 0.0001
   CPI 46.2 ± 11.1 21.0 ± 8.1  < 0.0001
  6MWD < 350 m 11 (61.1) 1 (2.4)  < 0.0001
  PaO2, mm Hg 84.8 ± 10.8 92.0 ± 14.6 0.043
  CT score 8.0 [25.0] 7.0 [11.0] 0.043
  Quality of life    
   SGRQ Total 38.3 [27.9] 68.8 [20.1] 0.009
  Sarcopenia assessment    
   SARC-F 3 [2.5] 0 [0–4]  < 0.001
   Grip strenght (women) 15 [11.5] 24 [8.8] 0.017
   Grip strenght (men) 26 [15.5] 35 [16.0] 0.003
   ALMI (men) 7.6 [1.5] 8.3 [1.3] 0.023
   Sarcopenia or presarcopenia 12 (66.7) 12 (29.3) 0.010
  Psychological assessment    
   PCLS scorea ≥ 44 5 (33.3) 4 (10.3) 0.042
  1. Data are expressed as numbers (percentages), mean ± SD, or median [interquartile range]
  2. CPI: Composite Physiologic Index; 6MWD: 6-Minute Walking Distance; SGRQ: Saint Georges Respiratory Questionnaire; ALMI: Appendicular lean mass index; PCLS: Posttraumatic stress disorder CheckList Scale
  3. a SP cluster n = 15, NSP cluster n = 39