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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study population

From: Sarcopenia is associated with cardiovascular risk in men with COPD, independent of adiposity

Variables Non-sarcopenia Sarcopenia* P-value
(n = 606) (n = 98)
Demographic variables
 Age, years 62.4 ± 10.9 69.7 ± 8.3 < 0.001
 Height, cm 168.1 ± 5.6 161.2 ± 5.2 < 0.001
 Weight, kg 65.9 ± 9.5 64.6 ± 10.3 0.210
 BMI, kg/m2 23.2 ± 2.7 24.8 ± 3.0 < 0.001
Smoking status
 Never 63 (10.4) 8 (8.2) 0.011
 Former 272 (44.9) 59 (60.2)
 Current 271 (44.7) 31 (31.6)
Systolic BP, mmHg 123.3 ± 16.4 130.4 ± 16.2 < 0.001
Diastolic BP, mmHg 76.1 ± 10.9 74.2 ± 8.7 0.055
Hypertension 281 (46.4) 69 (70.4) < 0.001
Diabetes mellitus 97 (16.4) 27 (28.7) 0.004
CKD 25 (4.1) 16 (16.3) < 0.001
Regular exercisea 225 (37.3) 33 (33.7) 0.496
Body composition
 ASM, kg 21.0 ± 2.9 17.9 ± 2.2 < 0.001
 Sarcopenic index (ASM/BMI) 0.9 ± 0.1 0.7 ± 0.04 < 0.001
 Fat mass index, kg/m2b 5.0 ± 1.5 6.8 ± 1.7 < 0.001
 High fat mass indexc 54 (8.9) 37 (37.8) < 0.001
 Waist circumference, cm 84.7 ± 8.0 89.5 ± 8.8 < 0.001
 Central obesityd 159 (26.3) 44 (44.9) < 0.001
 Obesitye 150 (24.8) 40 (40.8) 0.001
Laboratory variables
 Fasting blood glucose, mg/dL 103.7 ± 26.5 105.4 ± 19.8 0.526
 Insulin, µIU/mL 9.1 ± 4.4 10.0 ± 4.2 0.054
 HOMA-IR 2.4 ± 1.5 2.7 ± 1.3 0.069
 Total cholesterol, mg/dL 184.6 ± 35.6 182.3 ± 37.6 0.561
 Triglyceride, mg/dL 160.9 ± 165.1 165.5 ± 112.8 0.792
 HDL cholesterol, mg/dL 45.6 ± 12.0 46.0 ± 11.8 0.051
 LDL cholesterol, mg/dL 111.1 ± 34.3 100.6 ± 25.6 0.203
 Serum creatinine, mg/dL 0.9 ± 0.2 1.0 ± 0.2 0.004
 eGFR, mL/min/1.73 m2 89.3 ± 17.8 81.1 ± 17.8 < 0.001
Spirometry
 FVC, L 4.0 ± 0.8 3.3 ± 0.6 < 0.001
 FVC, % 90.9 ± 14.0 84.1 ± 13.5 < 0.001
 FEV1, L 2.5 ± 0.6 2.0 ± 0.5 < 0.001
 FEV1, % 76.6 ± 15.9 75.8 ± 17.1 0.617
 FEV1/FVC, % 62.1 ± 8.0 61.6 ± 8.2 0.632
 FEV1 < 80% of predicted value 347 (57.3) 58 (59.2) 0.742
ASCVD
 ASCVD risk score, % 16.3 ± 11.4 27.5 ± 14.3 < 0.001
 High ASCVD riskf 187 (30.9) 68 (69.5) < 0.001
  1. Variables are expressed as means ± standard deviations or n (%). BMI, body mass index; ASM, appendicular skeletal muscle; BP, blood pressure; CKD, chronic kidney disease; HOMA-IR, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; PTH, parathyroid hormone; ALP, alkaline phosphate; FVC, forced vital capacity; FEV1, forced expiratory volume in 1 s; ASCVD, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease
  2. *Sarcopenia was defined as sarcopenia index < 0.774
  3. aRegular exercise was defined as > 20 min per session and at least 3 times per week
  4. bFat mass index was calculated by dividing each participant’s fat mass (kg) by square of height (m) (kg/m2)
  5. cHigh fat mass index was defined as fat mass index ≥ 7.0 kg/m2
  6. dCentral obesity was defined as waist circumference ≥ 90 cm
  7. eObesity was defined as BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2
  8. fHigh ASCVD risk was defined as ASCVD score > 20%