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Table 1 Characteristics of the studies included in the systematic review

From: Oxygenation strategies during flexible bronchoscopy: a review of the literature

  Year Patients enrolled FOB performed Study type Clinical status Setting RS before FOB RS during FOB FOB purpose Analgosedation strategy Main outcomes
Antonelli M., et al. [1] 1996 8 8 Interventional Acute ICU COT NPPV Diagnostic Lidocaine O2 saturation, PaO2/FiO2, PaCO2,
RR, HR, intubation, mortality
Jones A.M., et al. [9] 2000 1074 2261 Observational Chronic Ward None COT Diagnostic Midazolam, lignocaine O2 saturation
Onakpoya U.U., et al. [10] 2012 61 67 Observational Chronic Ward None COT Diagnostic Diazepam, lignocaine O2 saturation
Golpe R., Mateos A. [11] 2002 44 44 Observational ND ND None COT ND Lignocaine O2 saturation
Alijanpour E., et al. [12] 2010 146 146 Observational ND ND None COT ND Lidocaine O2 saturation
Cracco C., et al. [13] 2013 169 181 Observational Acute ICU COT, NPPV COT, NPPV Diagnostic, therapeutic ND Intubation, increased ventilatory support
Ghio A.J., et al. [14] 2007 12 12 Prospective randomized Healthy volunteers Outpatients COT or none COT or none Research Lidocaine O2 saturation
McCain T.W., et al. [15] 2001 97 97 Prospective randomized Chronic ND COT COT Diagnostic Meperidine or fentanyl, midazolam O2 saturation,
O2 flow rate
Miyagi K., et al. [16] 2014 5 5 Observational Acute ICU COT HFNC Diagnostic ND O2 saturation
La Combe B., et al. [17] 2016 30 30 Observational Acute ICU COT HFNC Diagnostic ND O2 saturation, dyspnea, intubation, mortality
Longhini F., et al. [18] 2021 36 36 Prospective randomized Chronic Outpatients None COT or HFNC Diagnostic Lidocaine O2 saturation, PaO2, ΔEELI, DD, TF
Chung S.M., et al. [19] 2018 10 10 Observational Acute, chronic Ward COT HFNC Diagnostic, therapeutic Midazolam, propofol, lidocaine O2 saturation
Service J.A., et al. [20] 2018 182 182 Observational Chronic Outpatients None HFNC Diagnostic Remifentanil. propofol or midazolam O2 saturation
Ben-Menachem E., et al. [21] 2020 76 76 Prospective randomized Chronic Ward None COT or HFNC Diagnostic ND O2 saturation
Lucangelo U. et al. [22] 2012 45 45 Prospective randomized Acute, chronic Ward None COT or HFNC Diagnostic Midazolam, lidocaine O2 saturation,
PaO2, PaO2/FiO2
Irfan M., et al. [23] 2021 40 40 Prospective randomized Chronic Ward None COT or HFNC Diagnostic ND O2 saturation
Douglas N., et al. [24] 2018 60 60 Prospective randomized Chronic ND None COT or HFNC Diagnostic Midazolam, opioids and/or propofol, lidocaine O2 saturation
Kim E.J., et al. [25] 2018 32 33 Observational Acute Ward COT or HFNC HFNC Diagnostic Midazolam, lidocaine O2 saturation PaO2/FiO2
Maitre B., et al. [26] 2000 30 30 Prospective randomized Acute Ward, ICU COT COT or CPAP Diagnostic Lidocaine O2 saturation, PaO2, ventilatory assistance requirement
Antonelli M., et al. [27] 2002 26 26 Prospective randomized Acute ICU COT COT or NPPV Diagnostic Lidocaine PaO2/FiO2, HR, MAP, intubation
Baumann H.J., et al. [28] 2011 40 40 Observational Acute ICU NIV NIV Diagnostic, therapeutic Midazolam, propofol, lidocaine O2 saturation, PaO2/FiO2, PaCO2, intubation
Korkmaz Ekren P., et al. [29] 2016 28 28 Observational Acute ICU NIV NIV Diagnostic, therapeutic Midazolam, lidocaine PaO2/FiO2, intubation
Chiner E., et al. [30] 2010 35 35 Observational Acute Ward, ICU NIPPV NIPPV Diagnostic, therapeutic Lidocaine O2 saturation, RR, HR, intubation, mortality
Heunks L.M.A., et al. [31] 2010 12 12 Observational Acute ICU COT NPPV Diagnostic Xylocaine O2 saturation, PaO2/FiO2, intubation
Antonelli M., et al. [32] 2003 4 4 Interventional Acute ICU COT NPPV Diagnostic Lidocaine O2 saturation, PaO2/FiO2, PaCO2, RR, HR, MAP, intubation
Agarwal R., et al. [33] 2012 6 6 Observational Acute Ward COT NIV Diagnostic, therapeutic Lidocaine O2 saturation, PaO2/FiO2, intubation
Chen X., et al. [34] 2020 29 29 Retrospective Acute Ward COT NIV, CMV Therapeutic Dezocine, midazolam, lidocaine O2 saturation, PaO2, HR, SBP, type of procedures, success rate, procedure time
Da Conceiçao M., et al. [35] 2000 10 10 Prospective Acute ICU None NIPPV Diagnostic Lidocaine O2 saturation, PaO2, PaCO2, intubation, mortality
Mohamed A.S., El-Sharawy D.E. [36] 2018 40 20 Prospective randomized Acute Ward NIV NIV Therapeutic Midazolam, lidocaine O2 saturation
Scala R., et al. [37] 2010 30 30 Prospective Acute RICU, ICU NPPV NPPV, CMV Diagnostic Lidocaine O2 saturation, PaO2/FiO2, PaCO2, pH
Simon M., et al. [38] 2014 40 40 Prospective randomized Acute ICU COT NIV or HFNC Diagnostic, therapeutic Propofol, lidocaine O2 saturation, PaO2/FiO2, PaCO2, HR, MAP, procedure time, intubation, mortality
Saksitthichok B., et al. [39] 2019 51 51 Prospective randomized Acute Ward or RICU NIV or HFNC NIV or HFNC Diagnostic Fentanyl, lidocaine O2 saturation, PaO2, PaCO2, pH, RR, HR, MAP, dyspnea
  1. ND not defined, FOB flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy, RS respiratory support, ICU intensive care unit, RICU respiratory intermediate care unit, NIV noninvasive ventilation, COT conventional oxygen therapy, CPAP continuous positive airway pressure, HFNC high flow oxygen through nasal cannula, CMV conventional mechanical ventilation, PaO2 arterial partial pressure of oxygen, FiO2 fraction of inspired oxygen, PaCO2 arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide, RR respiratory rate, HR heart rate, ΔEELI changes of end-expiratory lung impedance, DD diaphragm displacement, TF thickening fraction, MAP mean arterial pressure, SBP systolic blood pressure