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Table 2 Subgroup analysis

From: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis and systematic review

Study characteristic Study IPF (D/T) Control Group (D/T) OR 95%CI P value Heterogeneity
Groups matched by age and sex [7, 8, 10, 24,25,26,27] 7 698 4891 2142 18,420 1.43 1.16–1.76 P = 0.0007 I2 = 55%
Smoking status matched in both groups [8,9,10, 25] 4 203 1581 598 6138 1.52 1.05–2.19 P = 0.02 I2 = 65%
Control groups made up of general population [7, 10, 25,26,27,28] 6 721 4795 2135 18,212 1.49 1.19–1.88 P = 0.0007 I2 = 66%
Control group with pulmonary diseases [8, 9] 2 24 201 23 620 2.23 0.56–8.88 P = 0.25 I2 = 79%
Healthy control group [24] 1 30 100 50 263 1.83 1.08–3.09
Community controls [7, 24] 2 47 152 71 447 2.50 1.24–5.06 P = 0.01 I2 = 59%
Hospital controls [8,9,10, 25,26,27,28] 7 728 4944 2137 18,648 1.47 1.17–1.84 P = 0.008 I2 = 61%
Diagnosis of IPF based on ATS/ERS criteria [7,8,9, 24,25,26] 6 170 857 402 3080 2.09 1.34–3.29 P = 0.001 I2 = 66%
Diagnosis of DM based on FBG [7, 9, 25, 26, 28] 5 193 761 395 2872 2.38 1.43–3.97 P = 0.0009 I2 = 72%
Diagnosis of DM based on subjective methods [8, 24] 2 43 204 57 323 1.62 1.02–2.58 P = 0.04 I2 = 0
  1. D: Diabetes. T: Total. IPF: Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis. DM: Diabetes Mellitus. FBG: Fasting Blood Glucose. ATS: American Thoracic Society. ERS: European Respiratory Society