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Table 3 Future research needed in the impact of e-cigarette-consumption in human health

From: An updated overview of e-cigarette impact on human health

Future research items to be addressed
Evaluate long-term effects of e-cigarette-consumption in human health for safety guarantee
Search for clear evidences of e-cigarette as a smoking cessation tool
Increase the number of in vivo and ex vivo studies (preferentially in humans)
Study the effects of e-cigarette-consumption on the immune system
Study effects the impact of e-cigarette-consumption on the cardiovascular system
Analyse potential toxicological effects of humectants, flavourings and related products after the heating process at physiological concentrations (similar to those that e-cigarette vapers are exposed)
Limit the number of flavourings authorised: The list should be strictly limited to those flavourings with long-term safety guaranteed, and appealing flavours for children/adolescents should be banned
Eradicate counterfeit products and implement a stricter regulation (e.g., Establish a strict range of nicotine content worldwide; standardize labelling; etc.)
Material device: all materials used should not generate harmful particles in aerosols
Follow-up study of the effects on respiratory and cardiovascular complications derived from SARS-CoV-2 infection