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Table 2 Observed rate of FEV1 decline according to GOLD subgroups, gender, smoking status and BMI category

From: Gender modifies the effect of body mass index on lung function decline in mild-to-moderate COPD patients: a pooled analysis

  GOLD Grades 1 and 2  
  Male
(N = 5457)
Female
(N = 3229)
p-value*
Rate of FEV1 decline, mean (95% CI), mL/year − 36.6
(− 37.6, − 35.6)
− 29.2
(− 30.2, − 28.1)
p < 0.001
Age, y, mean (SD) 51.8 (8.8) 51.9 (9.3) p = 0.40
BMI, kg/m2, mean(SD) 26.3 (3.9) 24.8 (4.7) p < 0.001
BMI category, n (%)    p < 0.001
 Underweight (BMI < 18.5) 54 (1.0) 109 (3.4)  
 Normal (BMI 18.5–25.0) 2082 (38.2) 1,863 (57.7)
 Overweight (BMI 25.1–30.0) 2477 (45.4) 863 (26.7)
 Obese (BMI > 30.1) 844 (15.5) 394 (12.2)
Smoking status, n (%)    p = 0.02
 Ex-smoker 1472 (45.7) 2350 (43.1)  
 Current smoker 1750 (54.3) 3099 (56.9)
  1. BMI body mass index, GOLD Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) spirometric grades, N number, SD standard deviation
  2. *p-values were obtained from Kruskal–Wallis test for continuous variables and Pearson chi-square test for categorical variables
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