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Table 3 Comparison of lung function and CT-measurement adjusted for COPD medication and biomass exposure

From: A comparative study of chest CT findings regarding the effects of regional dust exposure on patients with COPD living in urban areas and rural areas near cement plants

  Model 1 Model 2
  CODA KOLD   CODA KOLD  
  LSMean ± SE LSMean ± SE P LSMean ± SE LSMean ± SE P
CAT score 23.60 ± 2.77 11.30 ± 2.44  < .0001    
Pulmonary function test       
 Pre-bronchodilator FEV1 (L) 1.56 ± 0.12 1.27 ± 0.09 0.071    
 Pre-bronchodilator FVC (L) 2.63 ± 0.19 2.84 ± 0.14 0.368    
 Post-bronchodilator FEV1 (L) 1.68 ± 0.12 1.41 ± 0.09 0.087    
 Post-bronchodilator FVC (L) 2.92 ± 0.18 3.00 ± 0.13 0.730    
 Post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC 0.57 ± 0.03 0.47 ± 0.02 0.003    
 BDR, bronchodilator response 10.80 ± 2.99 12.40 ± 2.19 0.683    
CT measurement       
 Mean wall area (%) 70.30 ± 1.29 67.90 ± 0.95 0.130 70.30 ± 1.25 67.10 ± 0.92 0.041
 Emphysema index 6.24 ± 3.16 20.0 ± 2.32 0.001 6.14 ± 2.99 17.60 ± 2.22 0.002
 Emphysema index, log-transformed/exponential 4.54 ± 1.29 15.22 ± 1.21  < .001 4.51 ± 1.28 13.20 ± 1.20 0.001
 The ratio of mean lung density (expiration/inspiration) 0.95 ± 0.01 0.94 ± 0.01 0.372 0.95 ± 0.01 0.93 ± 0.01 0.088
  1. Model1: adjusted for age, gender, education, BMI, smoking status, pack-year, CCI, exacerbation, COPD medication, and biomass exposure
  2. Model2: adjusted for Model1 plus post-bronchodilator FEV1 (L)
  3. CAT COPD assessment test, FEV1 forced expiratory volume in one second, FVC forced vital capacity, LSMean least-squared mean, SE standard error
  4. LSMeans (SE) for log-transformed lung function and CT measurements were assessed by the generalized linear mixed model