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Table 3 Cox proportional hazards regression analysis evaluating the effect of ICS cessation and variables associated with the time to first exacerbation in the 1-year outcome period

From: Withdrawal of inhaled corticosteroids versus continuation of triple therapy in patients with COPD in real life: observational comparative effectiveness study

Variable Total Event Univariate Multivariate p-value
HR 95% CI HR 95% CI
Group
 Control 4184 2008 (47.9%) 1 Ref    
 ICS cessation 1046 501 (47.9%) 1.02 0.92 to 1.12 1.04 0.94 to 1.15 0.441
Sex
 Female 2330 1190 (51.1%) 1 Ref    
 Male 2900 1319 (45.5%) 0.85 0.79 to 0.92   
GOLD severity category
 Mild 525 236 (44.9%) 1 Ref    
 Moderate 2173 1019 (46.9%) 1.05 0.91 to 1.21    
 Severe 1576 790 (50.1%) 1.15 0.99 to 1.33    
 Very severe 485 258 (53.2%) 1.26 1.06 to 1.51    
Blood eosinophil count
 < 0.1 370 173 (46.7%) 1 Ref    
 ≥ 0.1 to < 0.3 2947 1452 (49.3%) 1.07 0.91 to 1.25    
 ≥ 0.3 970 490 (50.5%) 1.1 0.93 to 1.31    
CAT score
 0–9 275 108 (39.2%) 1 Ref    
 10–19 457 206 (45.1%) 1.2 0.95 to 1.52    
 20–29 318 155 (48.7%) 1.33 1.04 to 1.70    
 30–40 124 74 (59.7%) 1.82 1.35 to 2.44    
mMRC dyspnea scale
 0 292 129 (44.2%) 1 Ref    
 1 1538 686 (44.6%) 1.04 0.86 to 1.25    
 2 1648 830 (50.3%) 1.2 1.00 to 1.44    
 3 1168 579 (49.6%) 1.19 0.98 to 1.44    
 4 244 124 (50.8%) 1.23 0.96 to 1.57    
Asthma diagnosis pre-baseline
 No 3957 1864 (47.1%) 1 Ref    
 Yes 1273 645 (50.6%) 1.13 1.03 to 1.23    
Respiratory consultations in baseline year
 0 179 52 (29.0%) 1 Ref    
 1–2 2116 777 (36.7%) 1.33 1.00 to 1.76    
 3–4 1434 677 (47.2%) 1.84 1.39 to 2.44    
 5+ 1501 1003 (66.8%) 3.33 2.52 to 4.40    
Exacerbations managed in primary care in baseline year
 0 2573 851 (33.1%) 1 Ref    
 1 1404 732 (52.1%) 1.81 1.64 to 2.00 1.74 1.57 to 1.93 < 0.001
 2 637 421 (66.1%) 2.81 2.50 to 3.16 2.57 2.26 to 2.93 < 0.001
 3+ 616 505 (81.9%) 4.57 4.09 to 5.10 4.04 3.55 to 4.59 < 0.001
Exacerbations requiring A&E attendance or hospitalisation in baseline year
 0 4885 2302 (47.1%) 1 Ref    
 1+ 345 207 (60.0%) 1.49 1.29 to 1.71    
Antibiotics prescriptions in baseline year
 0 2659 895 (33.6%) 1 Ref    
 1 1298 682 (52.5%) 1.81 1.64 to 2.00    
 2 600 390 (65.0%) 2.6 2.31 to 2.93    
 3+ 673 542 (80.5%) 4.29 3.86 to 4.78    
OCS prescriptions in baseline year
 0 2108 769 (36.5%) 1 Ref    
 1 992 454 (45.7%) 1.34 1.19 to 1.50 1.02 0.90 to 1.15 0.791
 2 680 375 (55.1%) 1.75 1.55 to 1.98 1.14 1.00 to 1.30 0.053
 3+ 1450 911 (62.8%) 2.21 2.01 to 2.44 1.22 1.09 to 1.37 < 0.001
ICS medication possession ratio in baseline year
 ≥ 70–< 80% 1559 728 (46.7%) 1 Ref    
 ≥ 80–< 90% 1049 491 (46.8%) 1 0.90 to 1.13 1 0.90 to 1.13 0.947
 ≥ 90–< 100% 1254 599 (47.7%) 1.05 0.94 to 1.17 0.99 0.88 to 1.10 0.804
 ≥100% 1368 691 (50.5%) 1.12 1.01 to 1.24 1.03 0.93 to 1.15 0.55
Time since first COPD diagnosis, year
 < 1 321 132 (41.1%) 1 Ref    
 ≥1–< 5 1360 607 (44.6%) 1.11 0.92 to 1.34    
 ≥ 5–< 10 1741 862 (49.5%) 1.29 1.07 to 1.55    
 ≥ 10–< 15 1017 502 (49.3%) 1.29 1.07 to 1.56    
 ≥ 15 639 330 (51.6%) 1.38 1.13 to 1.69    
Time on triple therapy, year
 < 1 896 386 (43.1%) 1 Ref    
 ≥1–< 3 1626 739 (45.4%) 1.1 0.97 to 1.24    
 ≥ 3–< 5 1234 596 (48.3%) 1.2 1.05 to 1.36    
 ≥ 5 1474 788 (53.4%) 1.38 1.22 to 1.55    
  1. Only variables where univariate analysis gave a p-value < 0.05 are shown