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Table 1 Selected biomarkers of ECM and wound healing that in peer review publications have been shown to be associated with key features of PF and potentially may also be used for segregation of COVID-19 patients

From: Can biomarkers of extracellular matrix remodelling and wound healing be used to identify high risk patients infected with SARS-CoV-2?: lessons learned from pulmonary fibrosis

Biomarker Biological meaning Prediction of delta FVC (IPF) Prediction of death in IPF References
C1M MMP degraded type I collagen—type I collagen is the most abundant protein in the body, and MMPs are produced by inflammatory cells degrading the tissue resulting in C1M yes Yes [25], 1
C3M MMP degraded type III collagen—type III collagen is abundant in the interstitial ECM, and MMPs are produced by inflammatory cells degrading the tissue resulting in C3M yes Yes [25]
C6M MMP degraded type VI collagen—type VI collagen is very abundant in lung ECM, and MMPs are produced by inflammatory cells degrading the tissue resulting in C6M yes Yes [25, 26]
PRO-C6 Type VI collagen formation. Also known as the collagen hormone Endotrophin yes No [26]
PRO-C3 Type III collagen formation, one of the most upregulated collagens in fibrotic tissues yes Yes [26]
CRPM MMP degradaded C-reactive protein a marker of local inflammaion Yes Yes [25, 26]
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