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Table 2 Molecular effects of PAHs induced by the parent compounds, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and electrophilic metabolites

From: Potential role of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in air pollution-induced non-malignant respiratory diseases

Cellular induced ROS formation/oxidative stress
 Redox cycling of eg PAH-metabolites
 Activation of membrane bound oxidases
 Damage to mitochondria
 Activation of ROS defense (macrophages)
Membrane receptors, transporters and channels e.g. β2-AR
 Ca2+ signaling
 cAMP signaling
 Phosphorylation signalling (including inhibition of phosphatases)
Intracellular receptors including aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)
 Classical genomic: CYP enzymes
 Non-classical genomic: cross talk with e.g. NF-κB
 Non-genomic signalling:
  Protein phosphorylation via kinases (ScC)
  Membrane order/caveola
  Ca2+ signaling
Genotoxic effects
 DNA damage and epigenetic changes