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Table 2 Serum biomarkers in post-acute COVID-19 according to disease severity

From: Persisting alterations of iron homeostasis in COVID-19 are associated with non-resolving lung pathologies and poor patients’ performance: a prospective observational cohort study

Disease severity Mild (N = 22) Moderate (N = 34) Severe (N = 53) p value
Markers of iron homeostasis
 Iron, µmol/L 18 ± 6 16 ± 6 15 ± 6 0.174
 Transferrin saturation, % 27 ± 11 26 ± 9 24 ± 10 0.434
 Ferritin, µg/L 139 ± 118 260 ± 183 317 ± 271 0.001
 Soluble transferrin receptor, mg/L 2.9 ± 0.8 3.2 ± 0.9 3.8 ± 1.3  < 0.001
 sTFRF index, (mg/L)/(µg/L) 1.5 ± 0.5 1.4 ± 0.5 1.7 ± 0.9 0.295
 Hepcidin-25, µg/L 14 ± 10 22 ± 14 20 ± 13 0.073
Hematological parameters
 Hemoglobin, g/L 139 ± 12 138 ± 13 139 ± 17 0.650
 Leucocytes, 109 cells/L 5.7 ± 1.6 6.1 ± 2.2 6.4 ± 2.1 0.253
 Thrombocytes, 109 cells/L 251 ± 47 254 ± 60 259 ± 78 0.998
Markers of inflammation
 Interleukin 6, ng/L 1.45 ± 2.1 1.96 ± 1.9 4.43 ± 6.6 0.017
 C-reactive protein, mg/dL 0.2 ± 0.3 0.2 ± 0.2 0.4 ± 0.6 0.067
 Pro-calcitonin, µg/L 0.03 ± 0.03 0.03 ± 0.03 0.04 ± 0.04 0.332
  1. Data are presented as mean ± 1 SD. Disease severity was categorized according to the need of medical treatment: mild, outward treatment, moderate, inward treatment, severe, inward treatment respiratory support (oxygen supply or mechanical ventilation). p values depict significant differences between severity groups
  2. sTFRF index soluble transferrin receptor/log ferritin index