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Table 3 Risk factors for chronic airway obstruction (CAO) and COPD

From: Decreased COPD prevalence in Sweden after decades of decrease in smoking

Covariate CAO COPD
  OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
 < 40 years Reference   Reference  
40–60 years 1.51 (0.77–2.94) 1.68 (0.79–3.58)
 > 60 years 4.08 (2.13–7.81) 3.73 (1.77–7.87)
Male sex 0.98 (0.67–1.43) 0.97 (0.64–1.46)
University education Reference   Reference  
Non-university edu 1.07 (0.72–1.59) 1.02 (0.66–1.57)
Never-smoker Reference   Reference  
 ≤ 10 packyears 1.18 (0.70–1.98) 1.28 (0.71–2.29)
11–20 packyears 2.37 (1.37–4.11) 2.51 (1.35–4.67)
21–30 packyears 3.98 (2.26–7.01) 5.01 (2.73–9.19)
 > 30 packyears 6.53 (3.84–11.10) 7.54 (4.24–13.42)
Exp to GDF at work 1.36 (0.91–2.01) 1.50 (1.01–2.36)
  1. Results presented as Odds Ratios (OR) with 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) from multiple logistic regression analyses
  2. Binomial logistic regression for COPD vs non-COPD and CAO vs non-CAO, respectively
  3. CAO = Post-bronchodilator chronic airway obstruction according to the fixed ratio definition (FEV1/FVC < 0.7)
  4. COPD = CAO in combination with respiratory symptoms. GDF = Gas, dust or fumes
  5. BMI-categories did not yield significant associations and were not included
  6. Bold font indicates P < 0.05
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