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Table 3 Association between vascular risk factor burden and severe COVID-19 illness and sensitivity analyses using the E-value approach

From: The effect of vascular risk factor burden on the severity of COVID-19 illness, a retrospective cohort study

  Unadjusted Age- and sex- adjusted
E-value NA 2.12
Number of vascular risk factor HR (95% CI) p value HR (95% CI) p value
2.06 [1.51–2.80] < 0.001 1.55 [1.09–2.21] 0.01
  1. Abbreviations: COVID-19 coronavirus disease 2019, HR hazard ratio
  2. Vascular risk factors include hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, atrial fibrillation, current smoker, overweight and physical inactivity
  3. E-values represent the minimum strength of association an unmeasured confounder would have to possess between both the exposure and the outcome in order to reduce the observed association between the exposure and outcome to 1 (no association) on the relative scale