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Table 2 Clinical characteristics and laboratory findings of COVID-19, SARS and MERS patients

From: From SARS and MERS to COVID-19: a brief summary and comparison of severe acute respiratory infections caused by three highly pathogenic human coronaviruses

  COVID-19 [94, 95, 98] SARS [25, 97,98,99] MERS [92, 93, 96, 98, 100]
Signs and symptoms
 Fever 56–99% 99–100% 81.7–100%
 Fatigue 18–55% 31.2% NA
 Cough 39–81% 29.0–74.3% 75–85%
 Sore throat 5–17% 11.0–23.2% 14
 Dyspnea 12–41% 40–42% 72%
 Myalgia 18–55% 49.3–60.9% 38
 Diarrhea 3–17% 20–25% 26
 Headache 4–23% 15.0–55.8% NA
Complications
 ARDS 18–30% 20% 20–30%
 AKI 3% 6.7% 41–50%
Laboratory findings
 Leukopenia (< 4.0 × 109/L) 26.8% 23–35% 14%
 Lymphopenia (< 1.5 × 109/L) 55.3% 68–85% 32%
 Thrombocytopenia (< 150 × 109/L) 11.5% 40–45% 36%
 Elevated LDH 55.5% 50–71% 48%
 Elevated AST 17.9% 20–30% 14%
 Elevated ALT 16.0% 20–30% 11%
  1. LDH Lactate dehydrogenase, AST Aspartate aminotransferase, ALT Alanine aminotransferase, NA Not available