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Table 4 Univariate comparisons of the clinical characteristics of hospital survivors and non-survivors

From: Association of time-to-treatment with outcomes of Pneumocystis pneumonia with respiratory failure in HIV-negative patients

Characteristics Survivors (n = 28) Non-survivors (n = 23) P value
Age, years 48.0 (34.5–59.0) 64.0 (50.5–69.0) 0.007
Sex, male 17 (60.7) 18 (78.3) 0.298
Underlying disease    0.589
 Malignancy 13 (46.4) 15 (65.2)  
 Solid organ transplant 12 (42.9) 6 (26.1)  
 Others 3 (10.7) 2 (8.7)  
Immunosuppressive agent use, previous month    0.548
 Steroid only 9 (32.1) 9 (39.1)  
 Chemotherapy only 4 (14.3) 1 (4.3)  
 Steroid with chemotherapy 15 (53.6) 13 (56.5)  
Pneumocystis prophylaxis 0 (0.0) 2 (8.7) 0.386
 Chest radiography findings
  Pleural effusion 8 (28.6) 3 (13.0) 0.305
 Radiographic pulmonary patterns    1.000
   Focal or diffuse alveolar pattern 13 (46.4) 11 (47.8)  
   Focal or diffuse interstitial pattern 3 (10.7) 2 (8.7)  
   Focal or diffuse alveolar-interstitial pattern 12 (42.9) 10 (43.5)  
Laboratory findings on ICU admission 9215.0 (5320.0–12,225.0) 6980.0 (5245.0–12,535.0) 0.757
 WBC blood cells, /μL 5591.0 (2880.0–10,395.0) 5458.0 (4235.0–10,960.0) 0.670
 Neutrophils, /μL 648.0 (389.5–1278.0) 560.0 (278.0–724.5) 0.244
 Lymphocytes, /μL 8.7 (4.0–16.0) 11.9 (5.1–28.8) 0.232
 Albumin, g/dL 2.9 (2.5–3.6) 2.8 (2.4–3.0) 0.136
 CRP, mg/dL 11.8 (8.4–19.1) 15.0 (7.4–21.8) 0.570
 PaO2/FiO2 ratio, mmHg 147.0 (102.3–170.5) 131.2 (116.8–160.6) 0.619
 D(A-a)O2, mmHg 38.5 (30.6–51.5) 41.6 (31.1–54.0) 0.771
Organ failure on ICU admission
 Shock 7 (25.0) 5 (21.7) 1.000
 Renal failure requiring renal replacement therapy 0 (0.0) 1 (4.3) 0.921
Respiratory support on ICU admission day    0.016
 Mechanical ventilation 20 (71.4) 23 (100.0)  
 High-flow nasal cannula 8 (28.6) 0 (0.0)  
Severity of illness
 SAPS3 43.0 (30.5–54.5) 56.0 (46.5–58.0) 0.030
 SOFA 6.0 (4.5–7.5) 6.0 (5.0–8.5) 0.445
Other pathogens identified from respiratory specimens
 Cytomegalovirus 3 (10.7) 10 (43.5) 0.011
 Virus other than cytomegalovirus 4 (14.3) 3 (13.0) 1.000
 Bacteria 3 (10.7) 7 (30.4) 0.078
Time to anti-PCP treatment, hours 64.5 (32.5–103.3) 46.2 (26.6–91.7) 0.447
Empiric treatment 16 (57.1) 15 (65.2) 0.765
Failure to initial treatment 6 (21.4) 16 (69.6) 0.002
  1. ICU intensive care unit, WBC white blood cell, CRP C-reactive protein, PaO2/FiO2 arterial partial pressure of oxygen/fraction of inspired oxygen, D(A-a)O2 alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient, SAPS 3 Simplified Acute Physiology Score 3, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, PCP Pneumocystis pneumonia