Skip to main content

Table 6 Adjusted mean annual direct and indirect costs of GOLD Grades – Extended model

From: Direct and indirect costs of COPD progression and its comorbidities in a structured disease management program: results from the LQ-DMP study

  GOLD grade 1 GOLD grade 2 GOLD grade 3 GOLD grade 4
N Mean (CI 95%) N Mean (CI 95%) N Mean (CI 95%) N Mean (CI 95%)
Total direct costs 12,053 (30.7%) €3828 [€3706–€3954] 18,119 (46.1%) €4295 [€4185–€4407]*** 7383 (18.8%) €5540 [€5323–€5769]*** 1752 (4.5%) €8779 [€7982–€9649]***
Ambulatory costs 12,053 (30.7%) €554 [€533–€577] 18,119 (46.1%) €597 [€575–€619]** 7383 (18.8%) €595 [€566–€626]* 1752 (4.5%) €615 [€546–€697]
Medication costs 12,053 (30.7%) €590 [€568–€613] 18,119 (46.1%) €718 [€690–€748]*** 7383 (18.8%) €939 [€888–€1001]*** 1752 (4.5%) €1498 [€1208–€1852]***
Hospitalization 12,053 (30.7%) €2068 [€1969–€2170] 18,119 (46.1%) €2271 [€2189–€2355]** 7383 (18.8%) €2943 [€2784–€3112]*** 1752 (4.5%) €4316 [€3850–€4781]***
Rehabilitation costs 12,053 (30.7%) €126 [€113–€138] 18,119 (46.1%) €145 [€134–€156]* 7383 (18.8%) €183 [€163–€205]*** 1752 (4.5%) €275 [€226–€325]***
Remedies 12,053 (30.7%) €394 [€378–€411] 18,119 (46.1%) €421
[€407–€435]*
7383 (18.8%) €632 [€601–€664]*** 1752 (4.5%) €1185 [€1086–€1287]***
Travel costs 12,053 (30.7%) €114 [€106–€123] 18,119 (46.1%) €131 [€123–€138]** 7383 (18.8%) €196 [€183–€210]*** 1752 (4.5%) €319 [€278–€361]***
Total indirect costs 3705 (31.0%) €11,739 [€11,208-12,280] 5473 (45.7%) €12,984 [€12,523–€13,443]*** 2160 (18.1%) €16,117 [€15,312–€16,922]*** 632 (5.3%) €20,525 [€18,822–€22,287]***
Sick day costs 3705 (31.0%) €2983 [€2789–€3183] 5473 (45.7%) €3145 [€2968-33,329€] 2160 (18.1%) €3210 [€2924–€3496] 632 (5.3%) €3255 [€2668–€3900]
Premature retirement costs 3705 (31.0%) €8972 [€8497–€9449] 5473 (45.7%) €9715 [€9315–€10,108]* 2160 (18.1%) €12,449 [€11,792–€13,130]*** 632 (5.3%) €16.180 [€14,936–€17.443]***
  1. Significant differences between GOLD grade 1 and the other groups:* p < 0.05 ** p < 0.01 *** p < 0.001.
  2. Confidence intervals and p-values of the cost differences were derived by bootstrapping the original data set with 5000 bootstraps [17]
  3. bold: p > 0.05