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Fig. 4 | Respiratory Research

Fig. 4

From: Systemic Immuno-metabolic alterations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

Fig. 4

CSC induced cellular and mitochondrial toxicity in mouse macrophage cells. The cytotoxicity of CSC was studied by measuring the ability of the cells to reduce 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) as described in the material and methods section in the presence of complete medium (glucose and pyruvate, a) or glucose and palmitate-BSA individually (b). Mitochondrial membrane potential was measured using the JC-1 dye after CSC exposure as described in the materials and methods section in the presence of complete medium or palmitate and is expressed as the ratio of red to green fluorescence (c). Mitochondrial superoxide production was measured using the MitoSOX Red dye after CSC exposure as described in the materials and methods section in the presence of complete medium or palmitate and is expressed as the change in mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) (d). * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01 and *** p < 0.001 as compared to their respective control using the Student’s t-test. # p < 0.05, and ## p < 0.01 as compared using the Student’s t-test

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