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Table 2 Comparison of the different models used to study lung biology

From: Use of precision cut lung slices as a translational model for the study of lung biology

Characteristics ALI Pulmonary organoids PCLS in vivo
Physical architecture •Structural mimics pseudostratified epithelium in vitro 3D multicellular tissue construct in vitro ex vivo tissue system in vivo disease models
•Cell composition predominated cell types are ciliated cells, goblet cells and basal cells multiple differentiated cell types contain basal cells, multiciliated cells, secretory goblet cells and alveolar epithelial cells all relevant cell types including structural and immune cells all cell types
•Cell origin primary and immortalized bronchial epithelial cells primary airway cells and human pluripotent stem cells all resident cells all resident and migratory cells
•Recruitable immune cells not available unless co-cultured not available unless co-cultured resident only fully available
•Extracellular matrix not available exogenous matrigel and hydrogels endogenous endogenous
Physiological function •Physiological relevance mucociliary differentiation; heterogeneous cell populations; epithelial barrier function; physiological responses to insults morphological and functional mimicking of the airway; heterogeneous cell composition and spatial organization; self-renewal and differentiation preservation of the lung architecture including small airways, respiratory parenchyma, cell populations and connective tissue; physiological responses to challenge and stimuli intact lung; physiological responses to challenge and stimuli; mimicking of human respiratory diseases
•Homeostasis no yes yes yes
•Immune responses epithelium related responses epithelium related responses collective responses from tissue components whole lung responses including recruitable immune cells
•Coculture potentials yes, with fibroblasts and immune component no data available pre-existed multiple differentiated cell types pre-existed multiple differentiated cell types