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Table 4 The lowest quartile of the skin viscoelastic modulus is independently associated with pulmonary emphysema

From: Loss of skin elasticity is associated with pulmonary emphysema, biomarkers of inflammation, and matrix metalloproteinase activity in smokers

  VE Odds Ratio 95% C.I. P-value P-trend
COPD Median 2.40 1.29 to 4.48 0.006  
Q4 (Ref)    
Q3 1.32 0.58 to 2.97 0.51 0.004
Q2 2.22 0.96 to 5.12 0.063
Q1 3.66 1.49 to 8.99 0.005  
Emphysema Median 3.27 1.73 to 6.21 <0.0001  
Q4 (Ref)    
Q3 0.69 0.31 to 1.52 0.41 0.002
Q2 2.17 0.95 to 4.95 0.07
Q1 2.89 1.12 to 7.47 0.025  
  1. Notes: An adjusted logistic regression analysis was performed to test likelihood of emphysema by quartiles of skin viscoelastic modulus (VE) following adjustment for age, gender, sun exposure, current smoking and pack year smoking history. C.I., confidence intervals. The presence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was defined using FEV1/FVC less than 70%. and subjects were categorized as having emphysema based on a visual emphysema score of greater than zero