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Table 2 Interventions used in the 7 RCTs

From: Noninvasive high-frequency oscillatory ventilation as respiratory support in preterm infants: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Study Type of intervention Ventilator type/ Interface Ventilator parameter setting Failure of intervention Targeted SpO2
Bottino 2018 [20] Primary respiratory support/
Following extubation
nHFOV: Medin, Olching,
Germany;
nCPAP:
Interface: Short binasal prongs
nHFOV: Flow:7~10 L/min, Frequency: 10 Hz, Amplitude: set interval 10, I: E:1:1.
nCPAP:
NA 90~95%
Klotz 2017 [16] Backup ventilatory support/
Primary respiratory support
nHFOV/nCPAP: Sophie, Stephan, Gaggenbach, Germany; Leoni plus,
Heinen+Löwenstein, Bad Ems, Germany
Interface: binasal prongs or nasal masks
nHFOV: Frequency: 10 Hz,
Amplitude: was set to achieve clearly visible oscillations of the chest,
MAP: nHFOV and nCPAP were
set at the level equal.
More than two episodes of apnea
or bradycardia per hour; respiratory acidosis with a pH < 7.10; or FiO2 > 0.6 to maintain a
SpO2 > 86%; hypercapnia with pCO2 > 70 mmHg.
86~96%
Lou 2017 [21] Respiratory support after extubation nHFOV: SLEbaby5000,
Germany.
nCPAP: Stephan, Germany.
Interface: Short binasal prongs
nHFOV: FiO2: 0.35~0.40, Frequency: 6~12 Hz, MAP: 5~7 cmH2O, Amplitude: is 2 to 3 times that of MAP, specifically based on visible oscillations of the chest.
nCPAP: FiO2: 0.30~0.40, PEEP: 4~6 cmH2O, Flow: 8~10 L/min.
More than 4 episodes of apnea per day, or saturation (SpO2) of < 85%, or paO2 < 50 mmHg, or pCO2 > 60 mm
Hg.
90~95%
Lou 2018 [22] Primary respiratory support nHFOV: SLEbaby5000,
Germany;
BP-CPAP: Fabian, Swiss.
Interface: Short binasal prongs
nHFOV: FiO2: 0.30~0.40, Frequency: 6~12 Hz, MAP: 6~12 cmH2O, Amplitude: is 2 to 3 times that of MAP, specifically based on visible oscillations of the chest.
BP-CPAP: FiO2: 0.30~0.40, lower/higher PEEP: 5/12~15 cmH2O.
More than 4 episodes of apnea per day, or when FIO2 > 0.5, saturation (SpO2) of < 85%, or paO2 < 50 mmHg, or pCO2 > 60 mm
Hg.
90~95%
Malakian 2018 [23] Primary respiratory support nHFOV: Medin, Olching,
Germany;
nCPAP: Infant Flow-driver device
Interface: Short binasal prongs
nHFOV: MAP: 4~8 cmH2O, Frequency: 5 Hz, Amplitude: MAP: 3 cmH2O, FiO2:0.4~0.6.
nCPAP: PEEP: 4~8 cmH2O, FiO2:0.4~0.6
at least one of the following: pH ≤7.20 and PaCO2 ≥ 60 mmHg, PaO2 ≤ 50 mmHg with a fraction of inspired oxygen of ≥0.6 or recurrent
apnea with ≥3 episodes per hour associated with bradycardia, or a single episode of apnea that
required bag-and-mask ventilation
≥ 90%
Mukerji 2017 [24] Following CPAP failure nHFOV: Drager VN500, Lubeck, Germany;
BP-CPAP: SiPAP, Carefusion, USA.
Interface: Short binasal prongs or nasal masks
nHFOV: FiO2: < 0.6, Frequency: 6~14 Hz, MAP: 8~10 cmH2O, Amplitude: were adjusted to achieve palpable/visible chest vibrations.
BP-CPAP: FiO2: < 0.6, lower/higher PEEP: 5~7/8~10 cmH2O.
Intubation 7 days post randomization, Not specifically described. 90~95%
Zhu 2017 [25] Primary respiratory support nHFOV: Medin, Olching,
Germany;
nCPAP: Stephan, Germany
Interface: Binasal prongs
nHFOV: Flow:8~12 L/min, Frequency: 6~12 Hz, Amplitude: 7~10.
nCPAP: PEEP: 6 cmH2O.
PaCO2 > 60 mmHg with pH < 7.20, or more than 3 episodes of apnea per hour
that required bag and mask ventilation, or hypoxia (FiO2 > 0.5 with PaO2 < 50 mmHg), or pulmonary hemorrhage.
90~94%
Zhu 2017 [26] Primary respiratory support nHFOV: Medin, Olching,
Germany;
nCPAP: Fabian, Swiss
Interface: Binasal prongs
nHFOV: Flow:8~12 L/min, Frequency: 6~12 Hz, Amplitude: 6~10, FiO2:0.25~0.6.
nCPAP: PEEP: 5~8 cmH2O, FiO2:0.25~0.6
FiO2 > 0.5 with PaO2 < 50 mmHg; PaCO2 > 60 mmHg with pH < 7.20; Frequent apnea episode (> 3/h) 88~93%
  1. nHFOV noninvasive high-frequency oscillatory ventilation, nCPAP nasal continuous positive airway pressure, BP-CPAP biphasic continuous positive airway pressure, MAP Mean airway pressure, PEEP Positive end expiratory pressure, FiO2: fraction of inspired oxygen