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Table 1 Comparison of clinical characteristics between survivors and non-survivors patients for 90-day follow-up

From: Pneumonia in patients with cirrhosis: risk factors associated with mortality and predictive value of prognostic models

Variables Total, n = 203(100%) Survivor, n = 140(69.0%) Non-survivors, n = 63(31%) P value
Demographics data
 Age(years), M ± SD 57.1 ± 13.7 57.1 ± 13.8 57.0 ± 13.6 0.952
 Sex m/f (% male) 138(68.0%) 95(67.9%) 43(68.3%) 0.955
 Current smoking n (%) 74(36.5%) 54(38.6%) 20(31.7%) 0.431
 Alcohol abuse n (%) 67(33.0%) 50(35.7%) 17(27.0%) 0.260
 Antibiotic therapy within the 3 months n (%) 42(20.4%) 34(24.3%) 8(12.7%) 0.064
 History of operation within the 3 months n (%) 16(7.9%) 13(9.3%) 3(4.8%) 0.400
 History of pneumonia within the 3 months n (%) 18(8.9%) 14(10.0%) 4(6.3%) 0.594
Co-morbidity
aChronic respiratory disease n (%) 16(7.9%) 12(8.6%) 4(6.3%) 0.780
bChronic cardiovascular disease n (%) 11 (5,.4%) 7 (5.0%) 4 (6.3%) 0.742
cChronic renal disease n (%) 8 (4.0%) 5 (3.6%) 3 (4.8%) 0.706
 Diabetes mellitus n (%) 31 (15.3%) 21 (15.0%) 10 (15.9%) 0.827
dNeurological disease n (%) 17 (8.4%) 10 (11.1%) 7 (11.1%) 0.414
Etiology of cirrhosis
 Virus n (%) 108 (53.2%) 73 (52.1%) 35 (55.6%) 0.852
 Alcohol n (%) 33 (16.3%) 24 (17.3%) 9 (14.3%)
 Others n (%) 72 (35.5%) 49 (35.0%) 23 (36.5%)
Complications of cirrhosis
 Ascites n (%), 159 (78.3%) 102 (72.9%) 57 (90.5%) 0.005
 Variceal bleeding n (%) 57 (28.1%) 36 (25.7%) 21 (33.3%) 0.312
 SBP n (%) 29 (14.3%) 17 (12.1%) 12 (19.0%) 0.200
 Hepatorenal syndrome n (%) 27 (13.3%) 8 (5.7%) 19 (30.2%) <0.001
 HE grade III/IV n (%) 11 (5.4%) 1 (0.7%) 10 (15.9%) <0.001
Laboratory and radiographic findings
 WBC 109 cells/L (IQR) 9.2 (5.4–14.0) 8.1 (4.7–11.9) 13.8 (8.6–21.6) <0.001
 Platelet count, 109 platelets/L(IQR) 60.0 (32.0–93.0) 69.5 (41.3–103.0) 43.0 (21.0–68.0) <0.001
 C-reactive protein level, mg/dL (IQR) 27.9 (12.3–66.8) 27.0 (10.6–66.3) 28.7 (15.6–68.8) 0.314
 Creatinine, μmol/L (IQR) 76 (59.0–120.0) 68.0 (55.0–90.8) 118 (76.0–212.0) <0.001
 Albumin, g/dL (M ± SD) 25.7 ± 4.9 26.0 ± 5.0 25.0 ± 4.8 0.180
 Total Bilirubin, mg/dL (IQR) 63.5 (24.8–239.8) 38.0 (21.3–104.0) 273 (71.2–479.5) <0.001
 INR (IQR) 1.54 (1.27–2.23) 1.36 (1.20–1.70) 2.62 (1.93–3.38) <0.001
 Multilobar infiltration n (%) 155 (77.5%) 102 (72.9%) 53 (88.3%) 0.017
 Pleural effusion n (%) 153 (76.1%) 102 (72.9%) 51 (83.6%) 0.109
Bacteremia n (%) 14 (6.9%) 5 (3.6%) 9 (14.3%) 0.013
SIRS n (%) 121 (59.6%) 71 (50.7%) 50 (79.4%) <0.001
Appropriate empirical antibiotic use n (%) 111 (54.7%) 101 (72.1%) 10 (15.9%) <0.001
ICU addmission n (%) 32 (15.8%) 11 (7.9%) 21 (33.3%) <0.001
Severity score
 PSI score (IQR) 107 (88–140) 99 (87–115) 164 (124–196) <0.001
 MELD (M ± SD) 17.6 ± 12.6 12.2 ± 8.7 29.7 ± 11.3 <0.001
 MELD-Na (M ± SD) 21.4 ± 18.8 15.5 ± 11.6 34.5 ± 15.0 <0.001
 Child-Pugh C grade, n (%) 84 (41.4%) 36 (25.7%) 48 (76.2%) <0.001
 qSOFA (IQR) 0 (0–1) 0 (0–1) 1 (1–2) <0.001
 CLIF-SOFA (M ± SD) 7.4 ± 4.3 5.4 ± 2.9 11.5 ± 3.9 <0.001
  1. aChronic respiratory disease was defined as previous diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and/or asthma
  2. bChronic cardiovascular disease was defined as previous diagnosis of coronary artery disease (myocardial infarction) and/or congestive heart failure
  3. cChronic renal disease was defined as previous diagnosis of chronic renal failure (including patients undergoing dialysis)
  4. dNeurological disease was defined as previous diagnosis of cerebral hemorrhage and/or infarction