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Table 4 Effects of respiratory muscle training on COPD patients with or without respiratory muscle weakness

From: Combination of inspiratory and expiratory muscle training in same respiratory cycle versus different cycles in COPD patients: a randomized trial

Subgroups Sham training IMT CTSC CTDC ANOVA (interaction)
Number 23 23 23 23  
 PImax>60cmH2O 12 9 8 11  
 PImax≤60cmH2O 11 14 15 12  
Δ BMI(kg/m2)
 PImax>60cmH2O -0.101±0.394 -0.593±0.770 -0.056±0.541 -0.173±0.618  
 PImax≤60cmH2O -0.066±0.595 -0.367±0.713 -0.192±0.543 -0.328±0.622 P=0.702
p 0.867 0.479 0.574 0.554  
ΔFFMI(kg/m2)
 PImax>60cmH2O -0.188±0.431 -0.232±0.583 0.053±0.335 0.131±0.814  
 PImax≤60cmH2O -0.176±0.385 -0.230±0.528 0.168±1.118 -0.254±0.450 P=0.605
p 0.941 0.993 0.780 0.170  
ΔPImax(cmH2O)
 PImax>60cmH2O 1.758±4.911 5.367±5.558 5.738±5.218 5.218±6.244  
 PImax≤60cmH2O 2.576±3.710 12.700±6.155 10.313±6.011 10.800±5.835 P=0.254
p 0.659 0.009 0.084 0.038  
ΔPEmax(cmH2O)
 PImax>60cmH2O 1.808±5.852 4.700±3.482 8.275±11.023 4.600±6.340  
 PImax≤60cmH2O 2.544±4.404 4.443±4.606 9.147±6.593 11.717±5.007 P=0.162
p 0.739 0.888 0.814 0.007  
Δ mMRC
 PImax>60cmH2O 0.167±0.577 -0.333±0.707 -0.250±0.463 -0.273±0.467  
 PImax≤60cmH2O 0.091±0.539 -0.286±0.469 -0.267±0.458 -0.167±0.389 P=0.938
p 0.749 0.847 0.935 0.559  
Δ FVC(L)
 PImax>60cmH2O -0.033±0.114 0.004±0.208 0.051±0.184 -0.059±0.210  
 PImax≤60cmH2O 0.009±0.078 -0.021±0.159 -0.016±0.107 -0.059±0.100 P=0.661
p 0.312 0.745 0.277 0.999  
Δ FEV1(L)
 PImax>60cmH2O -0.015±0.072 -0.053±0.134 0.095±0.123 -0.021±0.104  
 PImax≤60cmH2O 0.006±0.092 0.001±0.089 -0.021±0.101 -0.039±0.068 P=0.033
p 0.405 0.749 0.097 0.687  
ΔFEV1%pred(%)
 PImax>60cmH2O -0.500±2.876 -2.556±5.812 2.875±4.764 -1.246±6.620  
 PImax≤60cmH2O 0.0±4.074 0.286±3.292 -1.800±5.759 -2.750±4.048 P=0.074
p 0.539 0.256 0.024 0.620  
Δ FEV1/FVC
 PImax>60cmH2O -0.003±0.033 -0.014±0.030 0.040±0.051 0.005±0.020  
 PImax≤60cmH2O -0.002±0.037 0.007±0.035 -0.001±0.044 -0.001±0.014 P=0.037
p 0.981 0.148 0.058 0.451  
Δ 6MWD(m)
 PImax>60cmH2O 3.667±25.850 25.556±25.793 15.750±17.958 15.909±7.687  
 PImax≤60cmH2O 13.727±12.539 23.286±12.615 20.867±30.928 23.250±15.910 P=0.775
p 0.255 0.780 0.673 0.180  
Δ CAT
 PImax>60cmH2O 0.583±2.193 -2.333±2.121 -1.125±2.532 -1.636±1.433  
 PImax≤60cmH2O 0±2.049 -2.286±3.221 -1.600±1.549 -1.833±1.586 P=0.962
p 0.518 0.969 0.581 0.759  
Δ SGRQ
 PImax>60cmH2O 0.167±2.588 -3.333±1.732 -2.250±2.493 -2.182±1.537  
 PImax≤60cmH2O -0.546±1.440 -2.929±2.841 -2.733±1.624 -2.333±1.155 P=0.811
p 0.430 0.706 0.579 0.791  
Δ HADS
 PImax>60cmH2O -0.250±1.138 -0.556±1.333 -1.000±1.927 -0.364±1.963  
 PImax≤60cmH2O -0.091±1.640 -0.643±1.737 -0.467±1.846 0.083±1.505 P=0.924
p 0.788 0.899 0.523 0.545  
Δ BODE
 PImax>60cmH2O -0.167±0.937 -0.556±1.014 -0.125±0.991 -0.364±1.286  
 PImax≤60cmH2O -0.182±0.603 -0.429±1.284 -0.467±1.642 0.000±1.206 P=0.803
p 0.964 0.805 0.598 0.492  
  1. Data are presented as mean± SE unless otherwise indicated; Δ, difference (after minus before intervention)
  2. Abbreviations: IMT inspiratory muscle training, CTSC combined training in same cycle, CTDC combined training in different cycles, BMI body mass index, FFMI fat-free mass index, PImax maximal inspiratory pressure, PEmax maximal expiratory pressure, mMRC modified Medical Research Council, FVC forced vital capacity, FEV1 forced expiratory volume in 1 second, %pred percent predicted, 6MWD 6-minute walking distance, CAT COPD Assessment Test, SGRQ St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire, HADS Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, BODE body mass index, airflow obstruction, dyspnea, and exercise capacity index