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Table 3 Breathing pattern before and after respiratory muscle training

From: Combination of inspiratory and expiratory muscle training in same respiratory cycle versus different cycles in COPD patients: a randomized trial

  Sham training
(n=23)
IMT
(n=23)
CTSC
(n=23)
CTDC
(n=23)
P 2
RR(breaths/min)
 Pre-test 20.3 (18.6 to 21.9) 20.3 (18.7 to 22) 20.7 (19 to 22.3) 20.0 (18.3 to 21.6)  
 Post-test 20.1 (18.6 to 21.6) 20.1 (18.6 to 21.6) 18.7 (17.1 to 20.2) 19.8 (18.3 to 21.3) P2=0.949
P1 0.584 0.275 <0.01 0.466  
Ti(S)
 Pre-test 1.489 (1.353 to 1.624) 1.481 (1.346 to 1.617) 1.435 (1.299 to 1.570) 1.501 (1.366 to 1.637)  
 Post-test 1.486 (1.354 to 1.617) 1.435 (1.303 to 1.566) 1.388 (1.257 to 1.520) 1.457 (1.325 to 1.588) P2=0.851
P1 0.691 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01  
Te(S)
 Pre-test 1.751 (1.521 to 1.980) 1.719 (1.489 to 1.948) 1.687 (1.457 to 1.916) 1.661 (1.431 to 1.890)  
 Post-test 1.755 (1.527 to 1.984) 1.757 (1.528 to 1.985) 1.752 (1.524 to 1.981) 1.723 (1.495 to 1.952) P2=0.989
P1 0.571 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01  
Ti/Ttot
 Pre-test 0.466 (0.434 to 0.497) 0.474 (0.442 to 0.506) 0.476 (0.444 to 0.508) 0.488 (0.456 to 0.520)  
 Post-test 0.466 (0.435 to 0.496) 0.460 (0.430 to 0.490) 0.457 (0.427 to 0.488) 0.470 (0.439 to 0.500) P2=0.922
P1 0.886 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01  
Vt(L)
 Pre-test 0.469 (0.447 to 0.491) 0.467 (0.444 to 0.489) 0.463 (0.441 to 0.485) 0.479 (0.457 to 0.501)  
 Post-test 0.465 (0.444 to 0.485) 0.471 (0.450 to 0.492) 0.462 (0.441 to 0.482) 0.477 (0.457 to 0.498) P2=0.762
P1 0.127 0.127 0.645 0.539  
IC(L)
 Pre-test 1.613 (1.461 to 1.766) 1.568 (1.416 to 1.720) 1.541 (1.389 to 1.693) 1.665 (1.513 to 1.818)  
 Post-test 1.600 (1.456 to 1.744) 1.575 (1.431 to 1.720) 1.537 (1.393 to 1.682) 1.652 (1.508 to 1.796) P2=0.909
P1 0.068 0.313 0.634 0.077  
  1. Data are presented as adjusted mean differences (95% confidence interval of the differences) unless otherwise indicated; P1 results of mixed linear model comparison of baseline versus week 8 in each group (within-subject effects); P2 results of mixed linear model comparison among the four groups(between-group effects)
  2. Abbreviations: RR respiratory rate, Ti inspiratory time, Te expiratory time, Ti/Ttot inspiratory time/ total breath cycle duration, Vt tidal volume, IC inspiratory capacity