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Table 2 Risk of pneumonia by type of ICS in permanent users

From: Concomitant inhaled corticosteroid use and the risk of pneumonia in COPD: a matched-subgroup post hoc analysis of the UPLIFT® trial

  Treatment throughout study Comparison
FP Other ICS No ICS FP versus other ICS
HR* or RR (95% CI);
p-value
FP versus no ICS
HR* or RR (95% CI);
p-value
Other ICS versus no ICS
HR* or RR (95% CI);
p-value
Permanent users, n 825 825 825
Patients with pneumonia events, n (%)# 115 (13.9) 95 (11.5) 87 (10.5) HR 1.28
(0.97, 1.68);
p = 0.078
HR 1.33
(1.00, 1.75);
p = 0.046
HR 1.03
(0.77, 1.38);
p = 0.830
Pneumonia events, n 159 111 98
Adjusted rate of pneumonia events (per patient-year), mean (95% CI) 0.10
(0.07, 0.14)
0.07
(0.04, 0.10)
0.06
(0.04, 0.10)
RR 1.48
(1.00, 2.19);
p = 0.049
RR 1.58
(1.05, 2.37);
p = 0.028
RR 1.07
(0.69, 1.65);
p = 0.773
Patients with hospitalized pneumonia events, n (%) 65 (7.9) 55 (6.7) 49 (5.9) HR 1.24
(0.86, 1.77);
p = 0.249
HR 1.30
(0.90, 1.88);
p = 0.168
HR 1.05
(0.71, 1.54);
p = 0.802
Hospitalized pneumonia events, n 78 64 51
Adjusted rate of hospitalized pneumonia events (per patient-year), mean (95% CI) 0.05
(0.03, 0.08)
0.04
(0.03, 0.07)
0.04
(0.02, 0.06)
RR 1.25
(0.78, 2.02);
p = 0.355
RR 1.47
(0.88, 2.44);
p = 0.141
RR 1.17
(0.69, 1.99);
p = 0.560
Patients with pneumonia resulting in death, n (%) 7 (0.85) 13 (1.58) 9 (1.09) HR 0.54
(0.22, 1.36);
p = 0.194
HR 0.75
(0.28, 2.01);
p = 0.567
HR 1.38
(0.59, 3.23);
p = 0.460
  1. Abbreviations: CI confidence interval, FEV1 forced expiratory volume in 1 s, FP fluticasone propionate, GOLD Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease, HR hazard ratio, ICS inhaled corticosteroid, RR rate ratio. Matched-subgroup population. *Cox regression analysis with ICS use on-treatment and matching factors as covariates. Poisson regression with ICS use on-treatment and matching factors (age, FEV1% predicted, GOLD stage, emphysema diagnosis, and courses of antibiotics) as covariates. #In this analysis, 23 patients treated permanently with FP received the treatment for non-pulmonary (mostly nasal) indication only; three of these patients had a pneumonia event during the study. In the subgroup permanently treated with other ICS, these numbers were 10 and 3, respectively
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