Skip to main content


Fig. 2 | Respiratory Research

Fig. 2

From:  Identifying the associated risks of pneumonia in COPD patients: ARCTIC an observational study

Fig. 2

Forest plot showing the HR for pneumonia in COPD and/or asthma patients versus reference population*. *(No COPD and/or asthma, no ICS). All results were statistically significant, p < 0.0001. HR above 1 is an increased risk of pneumonia. COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; HR hazard ratio; ICS inhaled corticosteroids (low dose ICS: < 640 μg/day; high dose ICS: ≥800 μg/day)

Back to article page