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Table 1 Population characteristics of adult cohorts

From: SERPINA1 methylation and lung function in tobacco-smoke exposed European children and adults: a meta-analysis of ALEC population-based cohorts

  SAPALDIA2 T1, 2001 SAPALDIA3 T2, 2010 ECRHS 2 T1, 1998 ECRHS 3 T2, 2008 NFBC 1966 T1, 1997 NFBC 1966 T2, 2012
N 561 561 267 267 248 248
Female, % 48.3 48.3 52.1 52.1 49.8 48.2
Age (years), mean (SD) 50.4 (10.8) 58.7 (10.7) 44.0 (6.0) 55.0 (6.0) 31.0 (0.3) 46.3 (0.4)
Height (cm), mean (SD) 170.2 (9.2) 169.5 (9.3) 170.0 (9.0) 170.0 (9.0) 172.0 (8.7) 172.0 (8.6)
Weight (kg), mean (SD) 73.9 (14.8) 75.6 (15.6) 74 (15.0) 77 (16.0) 72.1 (12.8) 80.8 (15.3)
Body mass index (kg/m2), mean (SD) 25.4 (4.2) 26.2 (4.6) 25.2 (4.2) 26.8 (4.5) 24.3 (3.6) 27.2 (4.5)
Smoking status, %
 Ex-smoker 52.0 63.0 54.7 69.3 46.8 69.2
 Current smoker 48.0 37.0 45.3 30.7 53.2 30.8
Pack-years, mean (SD)a 20.4 (20.2) 22.6 (22.1) 17 (17.0) 20 (21.0) 7.7 (5.9) 11.0 (9.6)
Education (%)
SAPALDIA ECRHS & NFBC       
Lowb ≤16 yearsc 5.0 4.0 10.9 10.9 0.4 0.4
Intermediate 17–19 years 66.0 67.0 30.5 30.5 61.9 61.9
High 20+ years 29.0 29.0 58.6 58.6 37.7 37.7
FVC (L), mean (SD) 4.4 (1.0) 4.1 (1.0) 4.4 (1.0) 4.0 (1.0) 4.9 (1.0) 4.6 (0.9)
FVC % Predictedd, mean (SD) 106.2 (13.4) 106.0 (13.4) 100.7 (13.0) 99.2 (13.5) 101.8 (10.8) 104.1 (11.2)
FEV1 (L), mean (SD) 3.3 (0.8) 3.0 (0.8) 3.4 (0.8) 3.0 (0.7) 4.1 (0.8) 3.5(0.7)
FEV1% Predictedd, mean (SD) 99.3 (14.2) 97.9 (16.0) 96.5 (13.7) 93.8 (14.2) 102.1 (11.5) 100.1 (11.8)
FEV1/FVC, mean (SD) 0.8 (0.08) 0.7 (0.08) 0.8 (0.06) 0.8 (0.1) 0.8 (0.05) 0.8 (0.06)
FEV1/FVC % Predictedd, mean (SD) 93.2 (9.4) 92.0 (9.9) 95.4 (7.7) 94.2 (7.7) 99.9 (6.8) 95.8 (7.0)
CRP (mg/L), mean (SD) 1.92 (2.8)
AAT (g/L), mean (SD) 1.27 (0.2)
COPD, defined by FEV1/FVC < LLNe 15.3 17.1 10.5 12.7 2.2 11.4
Doctor-diagnosed asthma, % 15.7 19.1 14.6 17.2 10.5 17.1
Respiratory medication (last 12 months), % 22.5 25.8 12.4 14.3 NA NA
Spirometer brand and model, %
 SensorMedics 2200 100.0
 EasyOne NDD Medical Technologies 100.0 100.0
 SensorMedics 2400 36.0
 Jaeger Pneumotach 16.1
 Biomedin Spirometer 47.9
 Vitalograph P Model 100.0
 MasterScreen Pneumo 100.0
  1. Characteristics of ever smokers at first (T1) and second (T2) time points in adult cohorts: SAPALDIA, ECRHS and NFBC 1966
  2. SD standard deviation
  3. aExcluding lifetime non-smokers
  4. bEducation: low corresponding to primary education; intermediate corresponding to secondary, middle, or vocational school; and high corresponding to technical college or University
  5. cAge at end of studies
  6. dPercentage of the predicted value estimated using GLI equations
  7. eLLN, lower limit of normal estimated using GLI2012 reference equations