|Bone-related conditions||Incident Read code of bone fracture (ankle, foot, toe, hand, finger, hip, femur, humerus, shoulder, clavicle, scapula, lower arm, elbow, wrist, vertebra or unspecific fracture) or osteoporosis.|
Incident Read code of hypertension preceded or followed within 180 days prior until 180 days after by a prescription for an antihypertensive drug (ACE inhibitor, ARB, dihydropyridine CCB or thiazide diuretic).|
The first record of either hypertension or antihypertensive treatment was assigned the date of outcome occurrence.
|Peptic ulcer||Incident Read code of peptic ulcer with or without haemorrhage.|
Main analysis: incident Read code of an infection preceded or followed within 1 month by a record suggesting hospitalisation or i.v. anti-infective treatment.|
Sensitivity analysis restricted to patients with IHS linkage (conducted in the nested-case control study only): incident Read code of an infection preceded or followed within 1 month by a hospitalisation whose reason was infection (ICD-10 code of infection in the IHS data).
|Herpes zoster||Incident Read code of herpes zoster|
Incident Read code of DM2 and/or a first-time prescription for an oral antidiabetic drug, whichever came first.|
If a patient was prescribed insulin before any other antidiabetic drug during follow-up (and therefore likely was diagnosed with DM1), the event did not count as an outcome and the person was censored at the date of the insulin prescription.
|Cataract||Incident Read code of cataract or a procedure for lens replacement, whichever came first.|
|Glaucoma||Incident Read code of glaucoma or a first-time prescription for intraocular pressure-lowering therapy, whichever came first.|
|CKD||Incident Read code of CKD or ≥2 recorded values of an eGFR of < 60 ml/min/1.73m2 within 365 days and separated by ≥90 days (calculated based on the CKD-EPI equation).|
Incident Read code of affective disorders (depression, bipolar affective disorder, manic episodes) preceded or followed within 180 days before or after by a prescription for an antidepressant or mood stabilizing drug, or a Read code indicating psychotherapy.|
The first record of either affective disorders or the respective treatment was assigned the date of outcome occurrence.
|Cardiovascular events||Incident Read code of myocardial infarction, ischaemic heart disease, or ischaemic stroke.|