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Table 1 Characteristics of selected studies

From: Characterizing undiagnosed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis

  Country Study type Population Definition of COPD Definition of undiagnosed COPD Participants with COPD Percentage undiagnosed Quality rating
Ancochea et al. (2013) [21] Spain Cross-sectional (EPI-SCANa) General Population, random sample Post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC < 0.7 Spirometric obstruction and no previous diagnosis of COPD (self-reported) 386 73% Good
Balcells et al. (2015) [3] Spain Prospective cohort study Hospitalized patients, all eligible patients were invited Post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC < 0.7, 3 months after discharge Spirometric obstruction and no diagnosis of respiratory disease or regular use of pharmacological respiratory treatment (self-reported) 342 34% Good
Herrera et al. (2016) [25] Argentina, Colombia, Venezuela, Uruguay Cross-sectional Primary care clinics, convenience sample Post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC < 0.7 and LLN Spirometric obstruction and no previous diagnosis of chronic bronchitis, emphysema, or COPD (self-reported) 309 77% Fair
Hill et al. (2010) [29] Canada Cross-sectional Primary care clinics, convenience sample Post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC < 0.7 and FEV1 < 80% predicted Spirometric obstruction and no previous diagnosis of COPD based on medical chart review over the previous 12-months 107 46% Good
Hvidsten et al. (2010) [24] Norway Cross-sectional General Population, random sample Post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC < 0.7 Spriometric obstruction and being treated by a physician or admitted to hospital for a diagnosis of obstructive lung disease (asthma, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, or COPD) in the previous 12-months (self-reported) 303 66% Good
Labonté et al. (2016) [30] Canada Prospective cohort study General Population, random sample Post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC < 0.7 Spirometric obstruction and no previous diagnosis of chronic bronchitis, emphysema, or COPD (self-reported) 505 70% Fair
Lamprecht et al. (2015) [4] Global Cross-sectional (BOLDb, PLATINOc, EPI-SCAN, PREPOCOLd) General Population, random sample Post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC < LLN Spirometric obstruction and no previous diagnosis of chronic bronchitis, emphysema, or COPD (self-reported) 2992 81% Good
Llordes et al. (2015) [31] Spain Cross-sectional Primary care clinic, all eligible patients were invited Post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC < 0.7 in 2 tests 4 weeks apart (the 2nd after 4 weeks of pharmacological treatment) Spirometric obstruction and no previous diagnosis of COPD in medical reports 422 57% Fair
Mahishale et al. (2015) [32] NR Cross-sectional Hospitalized patients, convenience sample Post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC < 0.7 Spirometric obstruction and no previous diagnosis of COPD (self-reported) 404 56% Poor
Miravitlles et al. (2009) [22] Spain Cross-sectional (EPI-SCAN) General Population, random sample Post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC < 0.7 Spirometric obstruction and no previous diagnosis of chronic bronchitis, emphysema, or COPD (self-reported) 408 73% Good
Moreira et al. (2013) [16] Brazil Cross-sectional (PLATINO) General Population, random sample Post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC < 0.7 Spirometric obstruction and no previous diagnosis of chronic bronchitis, emphysema, or COPD (self-reported) 53 62% Fair
Nascimento et al. (2007) [17] Brazil Cross-sectional (PLATINO) General Population, random sample Post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC < 0.7 Spirometric obstruction and no previous diagnosis of chronic bronchitis, emphysema, or COPD (self-reported) 144 88% Fair
Queiroz et al. (2012) [27] Brazil Cross-sectional Primary care clinics, convenience sample Post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC < 0.7 Spirometric obstruction and no previous diagnosis of chronic bronchitis, emphysema, or COPD (self-reported) 63 71% Good
Schirnhofer et al. (2011) [23] Austria Cross-sectional (BOLD) General Population, random sample Post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC < LLN Spirometric obstruction and no previous diagnosis of chronic bronchitis, emphysema, or COPD (self-reported) 199 86% Good
Talamo et al. (2007) [18] Brazil, Chile, Mexico, Uruguay, Venezuela Cross-sectional (PLATINO General Population, random sample Post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC < 0.7 Spirometric obstruction and no previous diagnosis of chronic bronchitis, emphysema, or COPD (self-reported) 758 89% Good
Zhang et al. (2013) [33] China Cross-sectional Hospitalized patients, all eligible patients were invited Post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC < 0.7 Spirometric obstruction and COPD not recorded as a discharge diagnosis in medical records 705 93% Fair
  1. NR Not Reported
  2. aEpidemiologic Study of COPD in Spain (EPI-SCAN)
  3. bBurden of Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD)
  4. cLatin American Project for the Investigation of Obstructive Lung Disease (PLATINO)
  5. dPrevalence study of COPD in Colombia (PREPOCOL)