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Table 4 Comorbidities of patients with IPF according to their smoking habits

From: Effect of smoking and comorbidities on survival in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

  Non-smokers Ex-smokers Current smokers p-value
Cardiovascular diseases a 34 (75.6) 46 (69.7) 12 (70.6) 0.790
Coronary artery disease 22 (48.9) 29 (43.9) 10 (58.8) 0.537
Hypertension 23 (51.1) 28 (42.4) 6 (35.3) 0.474
Cerebral infarction 3 (6.7) 8 (12.1) 2 (11.8) 0.629
TIA 3 (6.7) 5 (7.6)   0.511
Diabetes 13 (28.9) 18 (27.3) 1 (6.3) 0.145
Heart failure b 16 (35.6) 14 (21.2) 3 (17.6) 0.169
Asthma 7 (15.6) 9 (13.6) 4 (23.5) 0.605
Depression 4 (8.9) 4 (6.1) 1 (6.3) 0.832
GER 3 (6.7) 10 (15.2) 1 (6.3) 0.288
Lung cancer   4 (6.1) 5 (29.4) <0.001
COPD   3 (4.5) 7 (41.2) <0.001
OSA 2 (4.4) 3 (4.5) 1 (6.3) 0.969
  1. N number, NS p-value > 0.05, TIA transient ischemic attack, GER gastro-esophageal reflux, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, OSA obstructive sleep apnea
  2. aCoronary artery disease, cerebral infarction and hypertension
  3. bHeart failure for any reason