Skip to main content

Table 1 Demographic, comorbidity and corticosteroid exposure details across cohorts

From: The cost of systemic corticosteroid-induced morbidity in severe asthma: a health economic analysis

Demographics All (n = 7195) Non-asthma controls (n = 2412) Mild/Moderate asthma (n = 3975) Severe asthma (n = 808) p-value†
Female, n (%) 4503 (63) 1481 (61) 2515 (63) 507 (63) 0.33
Age (years)a 58 ± 17 58 ± 17 58 ± 16 59 ± 17 0.65
Geographical region, n (%)      
London 597 (8) 198 (8) 344 (9) 55 (7) 0.22
South of England 903 (13) 333 (14) 477 (12) 93 (12) 0.07
East of England 1064 (15) 333 (14) 616 (16) 115 (14) 0.16
Midlands 2146 (30) 685 (28) 1213 (31) 248 (31) 0.17
North of England 1648 (23) 581 (24) 874 (22) 193 (24) 0.12
Scotland/NI/Wales/unknown 837 (12) 282 (12) 451 (11) 104 (13) 0.47
Number of corticosteroid-related comorbidities, n (%)      
Type II diabetes 512 (7) 149 (6) 281 (7) 82 (10) 0.0007
Obesity (Body Mass Index >30) 2285 (32) 561 (23) 1385 (35) 339 (42) <0.0001
Osteopenia 204 (3) 41 (2) 85 (2) 78 (10) <0.0001
Osteoporosis 362 (5) 74 (3) 162 (4) 126 (16) <0.0001
Fracture 263 (4) 88 (4) 134 (3) 41 (5) 0.06
Dyspeptic disorders 3342 (46) 851 (35) 1874 (47) 617 (76) <0.0001
Glaucoma 236 (3) 67 (3) 137 (3) 32 (4) 0.10
Cataract 370 (5) 105 (4) 195 (5) 70 (9) <0.0001
Cardiovascular disease 522 (7) 168 (7) 277 (7) 77 (10) 0.03
Hypertension 2017 (28) 596 (25) 1145 (29) 276 (34) <0.0001
Psychiatric conditions 2155 (30) 607 (25) 1238 (31) 310 (38) <0.0001
Hypercholesterolemia 943 (13) 258 (10) 561 (14) 124 (15) <0.0001
Sleep disorder 172 (2) 40 (2) 99 (3) 33 (4) 0.0003
Chronic kidney disease 619 (9) 167 (7) 342 (9) 110 (14) <0.0001
Inhaled Corticosteroid Dose in Beclomethasone Diproprionate (BDP) equivalentsa ---- ---- 499 ± 323 (n = 3898) 1411 ± 846 (n = 738) <0.0001
OCS Prescriptions per yeara ---- ---- 1.2 ± 1.8 (n = 995) 11 ± 9 (n = 808) <0.0001
  1. Mean values of inhaled and oral corticosteroids relates only to those with corticosteroid exposure
  2. †P-value’s relate to an analysis of variance between samples (F-test) where three or more samples are being tested, otherwise the equality of means (t-test) was used
  3. aMean ± Standard Deviation (SD)